TEACHING RECEPTIVE SKILLS: LISTENING AND READING. Калинина Е.А. доцент кафедры филологического образования СарИПКиПРО
PROBLEMS IN LISTENING: • People speak too fast to follow • They can not tell where the words start and stop • People pronounce the words they just do not recognise • They can not work out details • They can not even get the general message • They do not know what attitudes people are expressing • They can not pick out the most important parts for understanding
THE TASK –FEEDBACK CIRCLE • Lead-in • Pre-task work (optional) • Set clear task • Play the recording or students read the text • Feedback on task • conclude
THREE GUIDELINES: • GRADE THE TASK, NOT THE MATERIAL • TASK FIRST- THEN RECORDING • PROCESS RATHER THAN PRODUCT
Examples of listening tasks: LISTEN AND… • ARGUE AGAINST THE PROPOSITION • CHOOSE THE CORRECT PICTURE • LISTEN AGAIN UNTIL YOU HAVE LEARNED THE POEM BY HEART • SAY A REPLY TO EACH COMMENT YOU HEAR
CHOOSE THE BEST ANSWER • DECIDE WHICH PERSON IS SAYING WHICH SENTENCE • FOLLOW THE ROUTE ON THE MAP • WALK/SIT/MOVE ACCORDING TO THE INSTRUCTIONS • DRAW A PICTURE
TAKE DOWN THE MESSAGE, ADDRESS AND PHONE NUMBERS • PICK UP AND SHOW A CORRECT PICTURE
GUIDELINES FOR LISTENING SKILLS WORK IN CLASS: • Keep the recording short • Play it 2 times at least • Let students discuss their answers together • Do not be led by one strong student • Give help only if they are completely stuck (DVD- feedback after an exercise)
TYPES OF LISTENING: • GIST LISTENING (EXTENSIVE LISTENING) (BOTTOM-UP)- GETTING THE GENERAL MEANING • LISTENING FOR DETAIL (TOP-DOWN)
POSSIBLE ROUTE MAP FOR A LISTENING LESSON: • Discuss the general topic • Predict the specific content • Predict the structure (who speaks? What kind of questions) • Gist listening for overview • Gist listening for attitudes • More careful listening for complex meanings • Listening for small details
LISTENING IDEAS: • News headlines • Jigsaw listening • Home recordings • Live listening • Guest stars.
PROBLEMS IN READING: • Lack of vocabulary • I need the dictionary all the time • It is very slow • Because it is slow the pleasure or interest is soon lost
READING FOR DETAIL (INTENSIVE) • skimming=read quickly to get the gist of the passage • scanning= move eyes quickly over the text to locate a specific piece of information. Skimming and scanning are both “top-down skills”.
POSSIBLE ROUTE MAP FOR A READING LESSON: • Pre-text • Introduction and lead-in • First task (pre-reading)-prediction from from illustrations, key-words, headlines), reading questions about the text.
POSSIBLE ROUTE MAP FOR A READING LESSON: 2. Text • Skimming tasks (check text against predictions, guess the title from the choice of 3 options, put events in the right order) • Scanning tasks • Tasks to focus on general meaning (answer the questions, make a sketch, fill out a form, find out which picture is being described, compare viewpoints) • Tasks to focus on detailed meaning • Vocabulary or grammar exercises, use of dictionaries)
POSSIBLE ROUTE MAP FOR A READING LESSON: 3. Post-text • Follow- on task (role-play, debate, writing task, personalisation) • Closing (reflection).
Specific ideas for reading tasks: • Put these illustrations of the text in the correct order • Put these cut-up paragraphs in the correct order • Find words in the text that mean the same as the words in the list • Read the text and find mistakes in the illustration
Specific ideas for reading tasks: • Read the text and make a list of particular items • Give a headline to each section of the article • Insert the sentences into the text • Discuss or write the missing last paragraph of the text
EXTENSIVE READING READERS- books published specifically for learners. They are graded and have grammar and vocabulary exercises.
Extensive reading activities: • Do not always start at the beginning! Try jumping in at the middle and reading one page. Predict what happened before • Create a situation totally different from the book and allow students to improvise • Review the book for a TV programme. Meet the author, discuss and argue.