Listening Collaborative Non-collaborative Aural Aural + Visual Aural + Collaborative Aural + Visual + Collaborative Social act Informational act Receive + Process Concrete Organized Contextualized=better comprehension Abstract Obscure Unfamiliar=difficult for comprehension
Input intensive Classroom a poor stage for developing listening Classroom good for beginning collaborative interaction, but structured—students do not negotiate meaning in the classroom Extensive exposure to listening outside the classroom Teachers (or textbooks) prepare materials: Appropriate linguistic complexity (of the task!) Appropriate amount of information Quality of sound (and image) Approach: Preparation Performance Follow-up GOAL: Get students to perform tasks that resemble real-life behavior
Examples • Distinguish between homonyms • Distinguish between phonemic differences • Listen for keywords pointed out in advance • Check off items in a list related to content • Check off items related to grammar • Circling an answer or image • Write an answer • Fill in or labeling a picture • Complete fill-in exercises • Sequence items or pictures • Sequence text • Follow oral directions • Fill in gaps in a dialogue • Identify main idea • Give summary • Develop questions for peers to answer
Video • Watch silent clip and make inferences based on visual information • Watch silent clip and predict dialogue • Predict next segment in a story line
Prepare the listener/viewer • Ask personalized questions • Use visuals (pictures graphics photos) • Brainstorm • State the topic • Use content-related pictures: have students label, describe, sequence • Review list of key words, grammatical structures • Brainstorm to expand the schemata • Read a content-related text • Review content questions • Predict and speculate • Preview the recording
Dresden Video Preparation: Grammar exercises using lines from the video. List of key words, especially place names that would be odd. Note the general topic: attractions, and brainstorm predictions. Still frames from the video: students describe images in TL. View video once through, then use an associogram to collaborate and find out what students heard. View video once through, English version. Homework: Video with sub-titles in the TL: content questions, sequencing text Follow up: Students assigned similar videos with assignment
Before viewing: Do preliminary investigations. What do you predict is in the video in general? Then go to the Internet and inform yourself about what could possibly appear in the video. • Watch the video once through without stopping. Note down what came up in the video that you predicted and found out from your preliminary investigation. • Watch the video a second time and note down at least two items of particular interest to you. • Go back to those two items of interest in the video. Write down as much as you can in German about those two items as they appear in the video. Be able to relate some information to the class. • Prepare a 100-word written description of information in the video. Be able to present the information orally. • Prepare lines to talk about “sites and attractions”: you are talking with a friend and very excited about the things you saw and did in your assigned city. Anticipate and write down notes to prepare for your conversation.
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Similarities and Differences with Listening: Listening: immediacy Reading: recursive Listening to recordings: also recursive Reading uses multiple sources of knowledge: schemata Reading almost always receptive, not collaborative Also needs preparation: Purpose: lexical, grammatical, cultural Selection: appropriateness, quality Preparation: pre-reading, appropriate tasks, post-reading
Text: register (from Omaggio) Literary Technical Correspondence Journalism Informational Realia
A heavy, wet coastal snowstorm is set to reach Greater New York on Wednesday evening, with up to a foot of new snow expected in the Bronx, northern suburbs and Connecticut. Manhattan will see totals around eight inches. Some locations on the south shore of Long Island may see only three to five inches, as the snow mixes with rain closer to the relatively warmer ocean. The National Weather Service currently has the entire region under a winter storm watch. The storm could prove especially problematic for parts of Connecticut, where two to three feet of snow remains on rooftops from previous storms. With the addition of another foot of wet snow, some roofs (especially flat roofs of shopping malls and big-box retailers) may be at risk of failure. As we saw at the Metrodome in Minneapolis last month, a roof collapse is a scary situation.
The storm covers skies in darkness, Spinning snowy whirlwinds tight, Now it wails like a beast wildest, Now it cries like a weak child, Now suddenly it rustles The old roof’s dry thatching mass, Now, a traveller, late and gusty, It knocks at our window’s glass.