Chapter 11 Parenting Key Terms
Parenting • The raising of a child by its parents. • Transition to parenthood • The period of time from the beginning of pregnancy through the first few months after the birth of a baby.
Oxytocin • A hormone from the pituitary gland during the expulsive stage of labor that has been associated with the onset of maternal behavior in lower animals. • Baby blues • Transitory symptoms of depression twenty-four to forty-eight hours after the baby is born.
Postpartum depression • Believed to be a result of the numerous physiological and psychological changes occurring during pregnancy, labor, and delivery.
Responsiveness • Refers to the extent to which parents respond to and meet the needs of their children. • Demandingness • The manner in which parents place demands on children in regard to expectations and discipline.
Overindulgence • Giving children too much, too soon, too long- it is a form of child neglect where children are not allowed to develop their own competences. • Time out • A noncorporal form of punishment that involves removing the child from a context of reinforcement to a place of isolation for one minute for each year of the child’s age.
Developmental-maturational training approach • Views what children do, think, and feel as being influenced by their genetic inheritance. • Although genes dictate the unfolding of a unique person, every individual passes through the same basic pattern of growth. • This pattern includes four aspects of development: motor behavior, adaptive behavior, language behavior, and personal-social behavior.
Behavioral approach • Also known as the social learning approach, this is based on the work of B. F. Skinner and focuses on conditioning. • Parent effectiveness training • Focuses on what children feel and experience in the here and now—how they see the world.
Socioteleological approach • Because children feel powerless in the face of adult superiority, they try to compensate by gaining attention, exerting power, seeking revenge, and acting inadequate.
Attachment parenting • Dr. William Sears along with his wife, Martha Sears, developed this approach that focuses on parents connecting with their baby.