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Do Now

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Do Now

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  1. Do Now • Download ch.12 notes. • Does anyone owe me work? • Reminders: • $89 due Monday (moved to next Friday) • Preliminary Report due Wed • Recycling permission slip due next Fri

  2. Energy • Energy Star Program 1992, US Dept of E • 2005 Energy Policy Act • Improvements in energy conservation • Continue development of alternative energy sources: • Hydrogen • Solar • Wind

  3. History • Greeks 2,500ya • Burned charcoal, primary source = wood • 5th century BCE: fuel shortage • Built houses to allow more sunlight in winter, less in summer • Romans 2,000ya • Burned wood • Eventually depleted and so imported • Developed glass windows, greenhouses • Illegal to build and shade another house

  4. Basics • Work = force x distance • Review potential vs. kinetic • Review laws of thermodynamics • Friction – causes E loss as heat

  5. Efficiency actual amt of E that does work amt of E supplied • Furnace: 1.5 units of energy released by burning fuel, only 1 unit actually heats house. Efficiency? • 1/1.5 = 0.67 or 67% efficient • Means, 33% lost as waste heat

  6. Units • Energy unit = joule (1 Newton applied over 1 meter) • Use exajoules = 1018 Joules • 1 BTU (raise temp of 1lb of H2O 1F) • 1BTU = 1055 Joules • 1 Quad = 1 exajoules or 1015 BTU • US uses 100 quads annually • World uses 425 quads annually

  7. More units • Power = E/time • joules/sec or Watts (1 joule/sec = 1 W) • kilowatt (kW) = 1,000 W • megawatt (MW) = 1,000,000 W • gigawatt (GW) = 1,000,000,000 W • 1 GW = 1,000 MW

  8. Electricity • Expressed as kW hours • 1000 W applied for 1 hr (3,600 sec) • 1000W • 1000 joules x 3600 sec = 3,600,000 J 1 sec 1hr • So, 3,600,000J applied every hr.

  9. Thermal efficiency • E produced by heat engines • Modern 1000MW generating plants are 30-40% efficient, meaning 60 – 70% wasted heat (twice the amount that produces electricity!!!!) • Electricity fed into a grid to distribute among power lines

  10. Efficiency Examples • Coal Power Plant: 30% (70% lost as heat) • Incandescent Light Bulb: 5% (95% lost) • Photosynthesis: 1% (99% lost as heat) • Betw. trophic levels: 10% (90% lost) • Nuclear power: 35% (65% lost as heat)

  11. Electrical resistivity • Power lines have a natural resistance to electric flow, so heat energy released from lines.

  12. US • ¼ of the world’s total energy consumption with 5% of total population !

  13. Energy from Fossil Fuels • Energy sources and uses • Exploiting crude oil • Other fossil fuels • Fossil fuels and energy security

  14. Global Primary Energy Supply

  15. Electrical Power Production: The Beginning Michael Faraday 1831

  16. Generators in a Hydroelectric Plant Attached by a shaft to a turbine propelled by water.

  17. Weekly Electrical Demand Cycle

  18. oil-based fuels natural gas coal nuclear power transportation industrial processes space heating and cooling generation of electrical power Match Dominant Primary (Left) with Secondary (Right) Energy Sources

  19. Exploiting Crude Oil • How fossil fuels are formed • Crude-oil reserves versus production • Declining U.S. reserves and increasing importation • Problems of growing U.S. dependency on foreign oil

  20. Crude-Oil Reserves Versus Production • Estimated reserves: educated guesses about the location and size of oil or natural gas deposits • Proven reserves: how much oil can be economically obtained from the oil field • Production: withdrawal of oil or gas from the oil field

  21. How Fossil Fuels Are Formed

  22. Algeria Indonesia Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Emirates Venezuela Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries: OPEC

  23. Oil • US: ~20+ million barrels used per day • World: 85+ million barrels per day • 850 BB of proven reserves left • 700+/- BB unknown reserves??? • Run out in +/- 40 years • OPEC dominates oil • Increased reliance on OPEC nations http://www.worldometers.info/

  24. Algeria Indonesia Iran Iraq Kuwait Libya Nigeria Qatar Saudi Arabia United Emirates Venezuela Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries: OPEC

  25. Problems from Foreign Oil Dependency • Variations in cost of purchases • Threat of supply disruptions • Limitations of nonrenewable resource

  26. Impacts of Foreign Oil Dependence • Trade imbalances • Military actions • Pollution of oceans • Coastal oil spills

  27. Oil History • 70’s Oil Crisis: OPEC banned Israel supporting nations (US) • Persian Gulf War: 1990, Saddam Hussein attacked Kuwait to control oil 6MB/day, US maintained control…upset Al Qaeda • 9/11/01: 2003 War - Blood for Oil?

  28. Where we get our oil:

  29. Keystone Pipeline • 700,000 barrels per day capacity.

  30. Gasoline prices in today’s prices

  31. Today’s prices 1 barrel crude oil = 42 gallons = 19 gallons of gas after processing http://www.oil-price.net/

  32. Cost of Gasoline • Cost of crude oil is about 48% of the price. • Federal and state taxes make up about 23% of the price. • Refining costs and margins is about 18% of the price. • And all other distribution and marketing costs are about 12% of the price. This includes transportation, storage, credit card fees (typically 2 to 4 percent), cost of doing business, sales taxes, and the retailer's gross margin.

  33. Trans Alaskan Pipeline • Built 1974-1977 because of oil crisis • 16 billion barrels of oil shipped from opening until 2010 • 97% oil from North Slope • ~38 billion barrels in reserves

  34. 1960: Eisenhower made the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) • Bush Admin pushing to open ANWR for oil drilling • Pros: thousands of jobs, profit for oil industry • Cons:4% of daily oil consumption, wildlife

  35. Hunter bags pipeline

  36. Caribou in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge

  37. Oil Drilling on the North Slope

  38. Alaskan National Wildlife Refuge • ~5.7-16 BB estimated reserves • Political battle to use oil here • Tundra: permafrost • Thin/delicate soil layer • Slow recovery for growth • Cold: slow decomposition (oil spill???)

  39. Pipeline/drilling consequences: • Displace populations • Disrupt migration (Caribou) • Etc. • Benefits: • Electric production, lubricants, fuel, plastics, heating, fuel, synth. rubber pesticides, etc.

  40. Other Fossil Fuels • Natural gas – ~92 -year supply • Coal – 225-year supply • Oil shales and oil sands - complex extraction technologies