The Treaty of Versailles 1919 The Weimar Constitution 1918 The Sparticist Putsch 1919 What was the problem with Weimar Germany? The Kapp Putsch 1920 The Munich Putsch November 1923 The Invasion of the Ruhr January 1923 Hyperinflation 1923 • EXAM QUESTIONS • Why was the Weimar Republic unpopular in the years 1919–23? • Why was the Weimar Republic weak in the period 1919–23? • Explain why the German people were angered by/hated the terms of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919 OR Why was the Treaty of Versailles so unpopular in Germany? • How far were the problems faced by the Weimar Republic in the years 1919–23 caused by the Treaty of Versailles? • Why was there an economic crisis in Germany in 1923? • Explain the importance of the Spartacist Revolt OR the Kapp Putsch in challenging the government of the Weimar Republic: • Describe why the Munich Putsch failed in 1923. • Explain why events in 1923 caused problems for the Weimar Republic. • Describe the effects of hyper-inflation on Germany in 1923.
Music & Cabaret Theatre & Cinema Art & Architecture Agricultural Depression 1927 Deteriorating labour relations CULTURE Hindenberg elected to Presidency 1927 The Golden Years of Weimar? 1. Introduced the Rentenmark 5. Loans from America: Dawes Plan 1924 STRESEMANN 2. Called off passive resistance: France leaves the Ruhr 4. Negotiate reparations: Dawes Plan 1924 (longer) Young Plan 1929 (less) 3. Friends in Europe: Locarno Pact 1925 League of Nations 1926 • EXAM QUESTIONS • ‘Stresemann was successful in overcoming Germany’s problems in the years 1924–29.’ Do you agree? • Why was the Weimar Republic able to survive in the years 1924–29? • Describe the work of Stresemann in helping Germany to recover in the years 1924–29. • Use your own knowledge to describe the importance of the work of Stresemann for the Weimar Republic in the years 1923–29. • To what extent was the Weimar Republic successful in the years 1924–29?
Change in Nazi tactics The Weimar Constitution – PR and coalition governments The SA Why did more people start to vote Nazi? Hindenberg’s use of Article 48 Wall Street Crash October 1929 • EXAM QUESTIONS • Why was the Nazi party able to increase its support from the German people in the years 1924–31? • Why did support for the Nazi party increase so much 1929–32? • Explain why events in Germany in 1929–32 led to the growth of support for extremist political parties. • Describe the ways in which the Nazi party was able to win support from different groups in Germany in the years 1929–32. • ‘The Wall Street Crash was the most important reason for the increase in support for the Nazis in the years 1928–32.’ Do you agree? • What part did the Wall Street Crash play in the growth of the Nazi party in the years 1929–32? Explain your answer. • Explain the importance of the work of the SA (Brown shirts) for the success of the Nazi party 1923–34. • Use your own knowledge to explain the changes in Nazi party tactics in the years from the Beer Hall Putsch in 1923 to 1929.
Jan 1933 Hitler becomes Chancellor Feb 1933 Reichstag Fire Increasing support for the Nazis and Communists in the early 1930s 28 February 1933 The Emergency Decree for the Protection of the People and the State How did the Nazis take power in Germany? June 1934 Night of the Long Knives March 1933 Enabling Act Aug 1934 Death of Hindenberg • EXAM QUESTIONS • Why was Hitler able to gain complete power in governing Germany in the years 1933–34? • ‘The Enabling Act in March 1933 was the most important factor helping Hitler to gain total power in Germany.’ Do you agree? • Describe the effects of the Reichstag Fire in February 1933 on Hitler’s rise to power. • How important was the Reichstag Fire in increasing Hitler’s support in 1933 • Was the Reichstag Fire the most important reason for Hitler’s rise to total power in the years 1933 and 1934? • Explain how Hitler was able to destroy the power of the other political parties in Germany in the period January–July 1933. • Choose one of the following and explain how it helped Hitler to gain more power: The Night of the Long Knives in June 1934 OR the death of President Hindenburg in August 1934
Radio Newpapers Posters Books Culture Films Rallies The SS How did the Nazis control Germany? The Gestapo PROPAGANDA & CENSORSHIP FEAR Concentration Camps Olympics ORGANISATION Employment programmes Police Courts Councils Gauleiters Gleichschaltung • EXAM QUESTIONS • Was the Nazis’ use of propaganda the main reason for their control over the German people in the years 1933–39? • Use your own knowledge to explain why the Nazis wanted to control the newspapers, radio and films in Germany from 1933. • Use your own knowledge to explain why the SS was so important in controlling opposition to the Nazi state from 1934. • Explain the importance of the work of the SS for the success of the Nazi party 1934–45. • Why was there so little opposition to the Nazi government after 1933? • ‘The use of propaganda was the main reason for the lack of opposition to Nazi rule.’ Do you agree?
Reich Church or Confessional Church? White Rose Swing Kids Edelweis Pirates Bonhoeffer Youth Groups Why wasn’t there more resistance to the Nazis? Pastor Niemoller Churches Army Cardinal Galen Operation Valkyrie Passive Resistance Anti-Nazi jokes No ‘Heil Hitler’ Secret socialist groups • EXAM QUESTIONS • Why was there so little opposition to the Nazi government after 1933? • ‘The use of propaganda was the main reason for the lack of opposition to Nazi rule.’ Do you agree? • Choose one and explain how they opposed the Nazi government: Pastor Niemöller and Protestant Churches; Students and the White Rose Group • Why was there so little opposition to Hitler from the Churches in Germany in the years 1934–45? • Why did the Nazis work with the churches in Germany rather than destroy them? • Why were (i) the Churches (ii) other political parties so weak in their opposition to Hitler? Explain your answer.
Four year Plan Strength through Joy (KdF) Beauty of Work (SdA) Food Shortages Kinde Kirche Kuche Marriage Loans New Plan WORKERS Education To what extent did the Nazis change the German way of life? WOMEN Hitler Youth (HJ) Young People Mothers’ Cross Stay at home or factory work? Girls League (BdM) ‘UNDESIRABLES’ Final Solution Camps Nuremberg Laws Euthanasia Programme Einsatzgruppe Kristallnacht • EXAM QUESTIONS • Describe the role played by women in the Nazi state 1933–45. • Describe how the Nazis used Youth Groups to spread their ideas. • Explain how the Nazis used education as propaganda. • Explain why the Hitler Youth was so important for Hitler’s leadership in the years 1933–45. • Why was control of education so important to the Nazi government? • Explain the ways in which Nazi rule changed the lives of many young people in Germany after 1933. • ‘The main role of education in Nazi Germany was to prepare boys and girls for different roles.’ Do you agree? • Describe how the Nazis reduced unemployment 1933–39. • In what ways did the Nazis’ treatment of the Jews change 1938–45? • In what ways did the Nazi treatment of Jews change 1933–39? • Why were the Nazis able to persecute the Jews and other minority groups in Germany in the years 1933–39?