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German Perspective on Giftedness. Prof. Dr. Heidrun Stoeger 1 & Prof. Dr. Albert Ziegler 2 1 University of Regensburg, Germany 2 University of Ulm, Germany. History of Gifted Education and Giftedness Research in Germany Phase 1: The Pioneers (1900-1945) Phase 2: Hibernation (1945-1980)

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German Perspective on Giftedness


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    1. German Perspective on Giftedness Prof. Dr. Heidrun Stoeger1 & Prof. Dr. Albert Ziegler2 1University of Regensburg, Germany 2University of Ulm, Germany

    2. History of Gifted Education and Giftedness Research in Germany • Phase 1: The Pioneers (1900-1945) • Phase 2: Hibernation (1945-1980) • Phase 3: Renaissance (1980-2005) • Phase 4: Re-orientation (2005- ) • Theoretical developments • Practical Developments • Identification • Mentoring • Self-regulated learning • Interesting new objectives in gifted education

    3. History of Gifted Education and Giftedness Research in Germany • Phase 1: The Pioneers (1900-1945) • Phase 2: Hibernation (1945-1980) • Phase 3: Renaissance (1980-2005) • Phase 4: Re-orientation (2005- ) • Theoretical developments • Practical Developments • Identification • Mentoring • Self-regulated learning • Interesting new objectives in gifted education

    4. Prof. Dr. William Stern (1871-1938) • Inventor of IQ (M=100, SD=115; Gifted > 130) • All theclassicaleducationalmeasuresofgiftednesseducationwerealreadyinvented (acceleration, enrichment, specialclassesorspecialschoolsforthegifted) • Evaluations: Non systematic

    5. History of Gifted Education and Giftedness Research in Germany • Phase 1: The Pioneers (1900-1945) • Phase 2: Hibernation (1945-1980) • Phase 3: Renaissance (1980-2005) • Phase 4: Re-orientation (2005- ) • Theoretical developments • Practical Developments • Identification • Mentoring • Self-regulated learning • Interesting new objectives in gifted education

    6. Skepticism about elites after World War II • No gifted education in Germany But four important developments: • Parents and a few politicians exhibited a growing interest in gifted education • Establishment of an Economics of Education as a scientific discipline

    7. Howmuchmoney lost the United States in 2009 due totheirinefficienteducationsystem? McKinsey & Company: 1,200,000,000,000 $

    8. Skepticism about elites after World War II • No gifted education in Germany But four important developments: • Parents and a few politicians had a growing interest in gifted education • Establishment of an Economics of Education as a scientific discipline • First results of international school evaluations (forerunners of TIMS, PISA etc.) • Smart fraction theory

    9. Skepticism about elites after World War II • No gifted education in Germany But four important developments: • Parents and a few politicians had a growing interest in gifted education • Establishment of an Economics of Education as a scientific discipline • First results of international school evaluations (forerunners of TIMS, PISA etc.) • Smart fraction theory

    10. Whatismoreimportant: Thatthe top 5% ofthestudents in a country score high (smart fractiontheory)?

    11. Forexample, results in PISA

    12. Forexample, results in PISA

    13. Orisitmoreimportantthattheaverageofstudents in a country score ishigh?

    14. Forexample, results in PISA

    15. Forexample, results in PISA

    16. Orisitmoreimportantthatthelowest 5 % ofthestudents in a country score high?

    17. Forexample, results in PISA

    18. Forexample, results in PISA

    19. Importanceofthe smart fraction • Numberofpatentsandinnovation • Growth oftheeconomicalsystem • Health • Crime rate • Life expectation • etc. • Exception: • HIV prevalence

    20. Whatismoreimportant:Thatthe smart fractionofcountryscoreshigherthanthe smart fractions in other countries ortheeducationallevelofthepoliticalleadersof a country? Again: Smart fraction

    21. Oneimportantconsequenceforthe German Educational System Tracking system • Gymnasium (1980: 20% beststudents) • Realschule (1980: 35% averagestudents) • Hauptschule (1980: 40% belowaveragestudents) Discrepancy: 5% smart fractionvs 20% Gymnasium

    22. History of Gifted Education and Giftedness Research in Germany • Phase 1: The Pioneers (1900-1945) • Phase 2: Hibernation (1945-1980) • Phase 3: Renaissance (1980-2005) • Phase 4: Re-orientation (2005- ) • Theoretical developments • Practical Developments • Identification • Mentoring • Self-regulated learning • Interesting new objectives in gifted education

    23. The 16 federal states of Germany

    24. Table 1: Overview of activities currently engaged for the promotion of giftedness by the educational boards of the various German states.EE = Early Enrollment SG = Skipping Grades GS = Group Skipping AC = Accelerated Courses/ProgramsE = Enrichment; S/C = Schools or Courses for intellectually gifted pupilsC = Counseling services specialized in giftednessTT = Is gifted education covered in standard Teacher Training? ST = Is gifted education offered as Supplemental Training for teachers? IB= Information brochuresandmaterialsforteachers, parents etc.

    25. End ofhappiness: Evaluations

    26. Meta-Analysis by Lipseyand Wilson (1993) Nr. of Studies d Enrichment(e.g., additional coursestoregularschoolinstruction) 20 .55 AbilityGrouping(e.g., specialclassesorschoolsforgiftedstudents) 23 .32 Pull-Out-Programs (e.g., thegiftedstudentsleaveregularinstructionforsome time in order toenjoyspecialtuition) 9 .47 Acceleration 13 .88 < .50 aresmall< 1.0 moderate > 1 large

    27. 1 6

    28. 1 6

    29. Meta-Analysis by Lipsey and Wilson (1993) Nr. of Studies d Enrichment(additional coursestoregularschoolinstruction) 20 .55 AbilityGrouping(e.g., specialclassesorschoolsforgiftedstudents) 23 .32 Pull-Out-Programs (e.g., thegiftedstudentsleaveregularinstructionforsome time in order toenjoyspecialtuition) 9 .47 Acceleration 13 .88 < .50 aresmall< 1.0 moderate > 1 large

    30. The effectsarestill statisticallysignificant • However, theeffectsare not sufficient: In order tohelpthestudentstoreach an international level(e.g., takepart in theacademicolympics in math) theyhavetobeaboutthetwentyfold!!!

    31. History of Gifted Education and Giftedness Research in Germany • Phase 1: The Pioneers (1900-1945) • Phase 2: Hibernation (1945-1980) • Phase 3: Renaissance (1980-2005) • Phase 4: Re-orientation (2005- ) • Theoretical developments • Practical Developments • Identification • Mentoring • Self-regulated learning • Interesting new objectives in gifted education

    32. Consequences • Skepticismagainstthe traditional wayofgiftededucationandtheavailablegiftedprograms • Recognition thatthereareno easy solutions, we must developcomplexinterventions (forparents, kindergarden, school, teachertrainingatuniversities etc.) andtheirimplementation will take time • Exploration ofnewmethodsandmodelsforadvancedlearning, mainlyfromeducationalsciencesandeducationalpsychology

    33. Whatisthemosteffectivemethod? Mentoring!!!

    34. Whatistheaverage rank of a randomlyselectedstudent after 6 monthsof individual mentoring? Dies ist das durchschnittliche Kind!!!

    35. In whatwaycanweimplementmentoring? We do not have a mentorforeachstudent. self-regulatedlearning

    36. History of Gifted Education and Giftedness Research in Germany • Phase 1: The Pioneers (1900-1945) • Phase 2: Hibernation (1945-1980) • Phase 3: Renaissance (1980-2005) • Phase 4: Re-orientation (2005- ) • Theoretical developments • Practical Developments • Identification • Mentoring • Self-regulated learning • Interesting new objectives in gifted education

    37. History of Gifted Education and Giftedness Research in Germany • Phase 1: The Pioneers (1900-1945) • Phase 2: Hibernation (1945-1980) • Phase 3: Renaissance (1980-2005) • Phase 4: Re-orientation (2005- ) • Theoretical developments • Practical Developments • Identification • Mentoring • Self-regulated learning • Interesting new objectives in gifted education

    38. Quality ofteacher, parentandstudentestimationsofintelligence Das ist Top 2% T F F F F students parents teachers

    39. Steps of identification and encouragement • Expert level • Advanced level Basic level

    40. Steps of identification and encouragement • Expert level • Advanced level Basic level

    41. Steps of identification and encouragement • Expert level • Advanced level Execution: all schools, counselling teachers

    42. Steps of identification and encouragement • Expert level • Advanced level Knowledge level: basic knowledge about giftedness

    43. Steps of identification and encouragement • Expert level • Advanced level Basic level

    44. Steps of identification and encouragement • Expert level Execution: schools with gifteness profile, counselling centers Basic level

    45. Steps of identification and encouragement • Expert level Knowledge level: advanced knowledge about giftedness Basic level

    46. Steps of identification and encouragement • Expert level • Advanced level Basic level

    47. Steps of identification and encouragement Execution: competence centers for giftedness • Advanced level Basic level