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Origin of Emission and Susceptibility in ICs. EMC Introduction . Personnal entrainments. Noise. interferences. System . Equipments. Printed circuit boards. Safety systems. Components. Hardware fault Software failure Function Loss. Two main concepts:. Susceptibility to EM waves.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

EMC Introduction

Personnal entrainments

Noise

interferences

System

Equipments

Printed circuit boards

Safety systems

Components

Hardware fault

Software failure

Function Loss

Two main concepts:

Susceptibility to EM waves

Emission of EM waves

slide3

Source of Electromagnetic Interferences

Natural disturbances (cosmic rays, thunder)

Radio communications, wireless, radars,…

IC

Electrical Overstress

IC

Inductive loads, motors

origin of parasitic emission
Origin of Parasitic Emission

Basic mechanisms for core current: CMOS inverter exemple

VDD

Switching current

IDD

(0.1mA)

ISS

(0.1mA)

IDD

(0.1mA)

Vin

Time

Voltage

Output capa

VOUT

VSS

Time

ISS (0.1mA)

origin of parasitic emission5
Origin of Parasitic Emission

i(t)

Time

50ps

  • The increasing speed and the high level of integration generate a stronger noise:

Vdd

Vdd

i(t)

Vss

Vss

Internal switching noise

Simultaneous Switching Noise

Switching gates

  • Main noise sources comes from AC current sources:
    • Clock-driven blocks, synchronized logic
    • Memory read/write/refresh
    • I/O switching
slide6

Origin of Parasitic Emission

Volt

Old process

New process

Time

Stronger di/dt

Increase parasitic noise

Why technology scale down makes things worse ?

  • Current level keeps almost constant but:
  • Faster current switching

Current

di/dt

Old process

New process

Time

slide7

Origin of Parasitic Emission

Ampere

Vdd

i(t)

time

Vss

Ampere

1 ns

1 A

Current / gate

Current / Ic

0.1 mA

time

0.1 ns

Example: evaluation of switching current in an IC

  • 0.1 mA / Gate in 100ps
  • 1 Billion gates (32 Bit Micro) => 100A
  • 10% switching activity => 10A
  • 10% spreading of current peak (non synchronous switching) => 1A in 1ns
slide8

Origin of Parasitic Emission

Example: evaluation of SSN

L=0.6nH/mm

L=1nH/mm

VDD

Lead = 10 mm

Evaluate SSN amplitude

1 A en 1 ns

Puce

Lead = 10 mm

VSS

slide9

Susceptibility issues

Power supply decrease & Noise margin reduction :

=> Increase of ICs sensibility to parasitic noise

Supply (V)

5.0

3.3

2.5

I/O

1.8

1.2

0.8

Core

45nm

0.5µm

0.35µm

0.18µm

90nm

65nm

Technology

slide10

Susceptibility Issues

EMC of ICs

issues

1-10GHz : Packages act as very good antennas

Antenna optimal size:

susceptibility issues
Susceptibility Issues

Components issues

Multiple parasitic electromagnetic sources

Power

HF

VHF

UHF

SHF

xHF

THF

1GW

Radar Météo

Radars

Satellites

1MW

TV UHF

MWave

1KW

TV VHF

Stat. de base

Badge

Hobby

1W

UMTS

GSM

Radar

Hobby

DECT

1mW

Frequency

300 GHz

3 MHz

30 MHz

300 MHz

3 GHz

30 GHz

slide12

Susceptibility Issues

Immunity suddenly decreases?

Immunity increases with Freq

Susceptibility trends vs frequency

Barber, Herke, IEE Electromagnetic Hazard, 1994

slide13

Susceptibility Issues

Desynchronization issues

  • Jitter is becoming increasingly important in design of logic circuit due to rising operating frequencies.
  • The increase of operating frequencies of digital circuits reduces their dynamic margin

EMI on supply

EMI induced jitter

Bit error

Dynamic failure

EMI induced jitter

slide15

EMC environment

EMC for Integrated Circuits requires various expertise

High frequency measurement

High frequency modelling

2D, 3D modelling

Electrical modelling

IC design

IC floorplan

slide17

EMC measurement methods

Why EMC standard measurement methods

  • Check EMC compliance of ICs, equipments and systems
  • Comparison of EMC performances between different products, different technologies, designs, PCB routings
  • Improve interaction between customers and providers (same protocols, same set-up)
slide18

Emission measurement methods

Control - Acquisition

Radiated or conducted coupling

Acquisition system

50Ω adapted path

Device under test

Coupling device

  • Spectrum analyzer
  • EMI receiver
  • Oscilloscope
  • Coupling network
  • Antennas
  • Wave guide

Emission requirements verified ?

Emission – General measurement set-up

slide19

Emission measurement methods

International standards for IC emission measurement methods

slide20

Emission measurement methods

Septum

Shielding

aperture 1

Far end

(to absorb

ers

W

50

termination)

Near end (to receiver)

aperture 2

Emission spectrum

Example of emission measurement set-up – TEM cell measurement

Chip under test

Spectrum Analyzer

Pre-amplifier

GTEM cell

slide21

Immunity measurement methods

Failure detection

Injected level Extraction

Disturbance generation

Radiated or conducted coupling

50Ω adapted path

Device under test

Coupling device

  • Coupling network
  • Antennas
  • Wave guide
  • Harmonic signal
  • Transients
  • Burst

Immunity requirements verified ?

Immunity – General measurement set-up

slide22

Immunity measurement methods

International standards for IC susceptibility measurement methods

slide23

Immunity measurement methods

Susceptibility threshold

Example of immunity measurement set-up

Signal Synthesizer

Decoupling network

Chip under test

Failure detection

Pforw

Prefl

Directional coupler

DPI Capacitor

Amplifier

  • Oscilloscope
  • Acquisition card
slide24

Impedance extraction

Equipment to extract impedance profile of board, package, chip

Frequency domain

Time domain

Time Domain Reflectometry

Vector Network Analyzer

slide25

EMC equipments

Spectrum analyzer 40 GHz (40 K€)

Amplifier 3 GHz 100W (60 K€)

Vector Network Analyzer 10 GHz (100 K€)

Signal Synthesizer 6 GHz (20 K€)

GTEM cell 18 GHz (15 K€)

Main equipments for EMC – typical prices

  • Expensive ….
  • Complete EMC laboratory : 500 K€