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CHAPTER 22

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  1. CHAPTER 22 BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY & CONSERVATION

  2. BIODIVERSITY –THE NUMBER AND VARIETY OF SPECIES IN AN AREA. KNOWN NUMBER OF SPECIES = 1.4 MILLION, ACTUAL NUMBER OF SPECIES 10-100 MILLION. TROPICAL RAINFORESTS CONTAIN 2/3 OF ALL LAND SPECIES.

  3. Tropical biodiversity Birds - Colombia is the country with the greatest bird diversity in the world has at least 1695 migrant and resident species, Peru (Cocha Cashu station) in an area of 50 km2 has 550 birds. In All of North America approx 700 species. In Costa Rica: - La Selva 410 species - Palo Verde 269 + species Number of breeding bird species in each area of 122500 square miles Figure from: Terborgh, J. 1992. Diversity and the Tropical Rain Forest,

  4. EXTINCTION- WHEN THE LAST MEMBER OF A SPECIES DIES. EXTINCTION REDUCES BIODIVERSITY • HUMANS ARE CAUSING EXTINCTIONS DUE TO THE INCREASE IN HUMAN POPULATION AND DESTRUCTION OF OR FRAGMENTATION OF NATURAL HABITAT. • HUMANS ARE ALSO CAUSING EXTINCTIONS BY UNREGULATED HUNTING AND THE INTRODUCTION OF NONNATIVE OR EXOTIC SPECIES TO AN AREA

  5. HUMANS ARE CAUSING HABITAT DEGRADATION OR DAMAGE BY POLLUTION. • AIR POLLUTION – BURNING OF FOSSIL FUELS, NO2 &SO2 COMBINE WITH H20 AND FORM ACID RAIN – THIS CAUSES DEGRADATION OF FORESTS, LAKES AND STREAMS. • WATER POLLUTION – WATERSHED RUNOFF, NONPOINT VS POINT POLLUTION. • LAND POLLUTION – WASTE; HAZARDOUS & NONHAZARDOUS • HABITAT DESTRUCTION AND FRAGMENTATION MAY CAUSE CLIMATE CHANGE.

  6. EXAMPLES: • HABITAT DESTRUCTION – FLORIDA PANTHER. • UNREGULATED HUNTING – PASSENGER PIGEON, BISON. • ILLEGAL HUNTING OR POACHING – AFRICAN ELEPHANTS. • NONNATIVE OR EXOTIC SPECIES – MELALEUCA TREE, KUDZU, ZEBRA MUSSELS. • PRESERVING BIODIVERSITY – • BIODIVERSTIY HELPS TO MAINTAIN A HEALTHY ECOSYSTEM. • SOME SPECIES ARE USED IN MEDICINE AS CURES OR TREATMENTS FOR VARIOUS DISEASES. • PLANTS NOT YET DISCOVERED MAY BECOME AN IMPORTANT FOOD SOURCE. • BIODIVERSITY GIVES BEAUTY AND WONDER.

  7. ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973 – PROTECTS ANY PLANT OR SPECIES IN DANGER OF EXTINCTION. FOUR PROVISIONS OF THE ACT ARE: • U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE COMPILES LIST OF ALL ENDANGERED OR THREATENED SPECIES. • ENDANGERED OR THREATENED SPECIES MAY NOT BE CAUGHT OR KILLED. PLANTS MAY NOT BE UPROOTED. ENDANGERED OR THREATENED SPECIES MAY NOT BE SOLD ORTRADED. • ANY PROJECT THAT ENDANGERS ENDANGERED SPECIES CANNOT BE CARRIED OUT. • U.S. FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE MUST BE PREPARE SPECIES RECOVERY PLAN FOR EACH ENDANGERED OR THREATENED SPECIES.

  8. DEVELOPERS VS. ENVIRONMENTALISTS- RESTRICTING LAND USE DUE TO SPECIES PROTECTION HAS LEAD TO A GREAT MANY CONTROVERSIES. THESE BATTLES ARE NORMALLY SETTLED THROUGH COMPROMISES WHERE BOTH SIDES WIN AND LOSE A LITTLE BIT. • WORLD WIDE EFFORTS- SEVERAL INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS WORK TO PROTECT SPECIES THROUGHOUT THE WORLD. THESE INCLUDE WORLD WILDLIFE FUND, THE NATURE CONSERVANCY, GREEN PEACE, AND MANY OTHERS. • CITES – CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES. EFFORTS BY THIS GROUP HAVE CUT THE SALES OF IVORY FROM ELEPHANTS. • BIODIVERSITY TREATY 1992 – WORLDWIDE EFFORT TO MAINTAIN AND PROTECT VALUABLE SPECIES.

  9. V. SAVING INDIVIDUAL SPECIES: A. CAPTIVE BREEDING PROGRAMS - ANIMALS ARE BRED IN ZOOS OR WILDLIFE PARKS THEN LATER RELEASED TO THE WILD. EXAMPLE - CALIFORNIA CONDOR. B. BOTANICAL GARDENS - GARDENS HOUSE UP TO 90,000 SPECIES OF PLANTS HELPING TO PRESERVE DIVERSITY. C. GERM - PLASM BANKS - THE FREEZING OF SEEDS FOR PLANT, AND EGG AND SPERM FOR ANIMAL PRESERVATION. THESE CAN BE DEVELOPED IN THE FUTURE IF A SPECIES BECOMES EXTINCT. D. ECOSYSTEM PROTECTION - PRESERVING A SECTION OF EACH DIFFERENT TYPE OF ECOSYSTEM ESPECIALLY BIODIVERSITY HOT SPOTS. THESE ARE AREAS THAT CONTAIN MANY DIFFERENT SPECIES. E. HUMAN NEEDS VS. ENVIRONMENT - CONFLICT BETWEEN PROVIDING FOR PEOPLE AND PROVIDING FOR THE ENVIRONMENT. SETTLING THESE DISPUTES NORMALLY REQUIRES COMPROMISE FROM BOTH. EXAMPLE OWLS VS. LOGGERS.