A commodity system analysis to reduce post harvestlosses of vegetable Realized by: KODJOGBE Guy, Chantal Pali, Nana Fredua AGYEMAN, Marian ASAMOAH,Christophe Kouame, Benoit Gnonlonfin, Kerstin HELL, Ousmane COULIBALY
Background • Fresh vegetables production provides employment for nearly 60,000 people in Benin (PADAPA, 2003) • It was estimated that between 30 and 40% are produced for own consumption (Hounkpodote and Tossou, 2001) • In Kumasi (Ghana), 37 percent of the population reported farming as their main occupation, and this is particularly so for women (Brook and Davila, 2000 in Gundel, 2006)
Background • Fresh fruit and vegetables production is confronted with a lot of difficulties: - the ownership problem - lack of technical training for producers - poor access to credit and inputs - distribution and marketing difficulties - the high competition between local products and imported products (Deguenon, 2006). High losses have been reported for African countries ranging between 15%–30% of the harvested product (Buys and Nortje, 1997)
Objectives of study • Post harvest losses (physical and economic) assessment on tomato, fresh pepper, dried pepper, lettuce and okra • Identification of post harvest losses causes and destinations. • Identification of mycoflora which accelerate the fresh vegetables losses
Methodology • 4 methods are applied in order to assess post harvest losses on thesevegetables value chains.
Methodology • Trackingsamples: - Assess post harvestlossesbothquantitatively and qualitativelyaccording to exposition temperatureatmarket - 6 baskets per product (1.5 kg) are chosen per trader (6) - We have recorded the temperatureunder the shed and and the temperatureinside the baskets atregularintervals time duringmorning, noon and afternoon. - Daily, we have weighted the baskets and have counted the number of spoiledproducts; - This methodisappliedduring 5 days for tomato, 7 days for chillipepper and 3 days for lettuceaccording to their traders purchasefrequencies.
Methodology • Quantitative losses = Quantity of harvested or bought products – Sold quantity of products • Qualitative losses depend on product grade, the storage time and price.
Results and discussion Focus group
Results and discussion Table 1: Producers education level, training and association membership in Benin
Results and discussion Table 2: Distribution of producers by education level, training and association membership in Ghana
Results and discussion • Causes of post-harvestlosses of freshvegetables in those countries: - use of local or auto-propagated seeds - excessive use of fertilizer, - poor irrigation system - poor harvesting practices, - supply exceeding demand - Handling: poor transport and storage - Insects and fungi
Results and discussion Grade 1 firm and fresh; infestation rate<=5%; red-green (tomato and chilli), green (lettuce), Too expensive according to the seasons. Grade 2 Less firm and less fresh; infestation rate between 15% and 20%; red (tomato and chilli), green with infestation (lettuce is throw away); the selling price fall gradually.
Results and discussion Grade 3 poor quality; infestation rate >= 50%; red (tomato and chilli); discount and sold to street food traders Grade 4 very poor quality; infestation rate = 100%; red (only the tomato); very discount and sold to street food traders
Results and discussion • Destinations of the post harvest losses: - Spoiled products are left on the field and sold to street food vendors (more common) - Seeds from spoiled products can be used for the next season - Spoiled lettuce are given to pigs or sold to breeders
Results and discussion Table 3 : Quantitative losses assessment in value chain (%)
Results and discussion Table 7: Mycoflora occurrence on vegetables (CFU/g) in Benin
Results and discussion Table 8: Mycoflora occurrence on vegetables (CFU/g) in Accra (Ghana)
Results and discussion Tracking samples : tomato case Tomato baskets weight and percent of spoiled tomatoes depend on display temperature
Conclusions • Post harvest losses are highest for tomato and lettuce, itcanreach up to 20% after 5 days • Chillipepper and okra are the freshvegetablewhich are mostinfected by fungi in both countries: risk of mycotoxicosis • The main perceived causes of post harvest losses have theirrootatproducerlevel: - use of local seeds/ auto-propagated seeds - excessive use of fertilizers and pesticides: pesticide residues - poor harvesting practices • Poor handling (practices, packaging, etc.) cause losses during transport and storage
Suggestions • Improved access to highqualityseeds (varietyshelf life) and other inputs • Training of producers on appropriate use of fertilizers and pesticides, the appropriate marketing and production planning methods • Improved transport practices, packaging technologies (eg: usingfolding plastic boxes), improvedstorage infrastructures • Improvedaccess to credit and improvedprovidingpolicymakers subsidies to producers • Training traders on effective and efficient transport or storage practices • Monitoring of mycotoxins and pesticides residues