Introduction of FIVB • Fédération Internationale de Volleyball • 1947年根据法国排协倡议在巴黎成立。创办国还有比利时、巴西、意大利、黎巴嫩、波兰、土耳其、捷克斯洛伐克。现在共有218个协会会员。 • 在2008年6月18日召开的国际排联大会上，国际排联主席鲁宾·阿科斯塔正式宣布提前退休，国际排联第一执行副主席、来自中国的魏纪中被一致选举接任国际排联主席，任期至2012年。
Introduction of FIVB 魏纪中原籍浙江余姚，1936年11月12日出生。他在青年时代就非常喜欢体育运动，1954年进入南京大学法国文学专业学习。在大学里，除了学习，排球是他最下精力的事情。不仅加入了南京大学排球队，还是江苏省排球队队员。1958年，魏纪中大学毕业后被分配到国家体委工作。从那时起，他参与了多方面的体育工作，曾担任国家体委司长、专员、主任助理、中体产业董事长及中国奥委会秘书长、中国奥委会副主席、2000年奥申委秘书长等要职，现任北京奥运经济研究会会长、北京体育大学博士生导师，他还在国际体育组织中担任一些领导职务。
History of Volleyball • Volleyball has come a long way from the dusty-old YMCA (Young Men's Christian Association) gymnasium of Holyoke, Massachusetts, USA, where visionary, William G. Morgan, invented the sport back in 1895. It has seen the start of two centuries and the dawn of a new millennium. Volleyball is now one of the big international sports.
Introduction of volleyball • Over the last decade particularly, volleyball has witnessed unprecedented growth. With the success of its world competition such as the World Championships, Olympic Games, Grand Prix, World Cup, and World Grand Champions Cup, the level of participation at all levels internationally continues to grow exponentially.
Introduction of Volleyball • Each team consists of six players. To get play started, a team is chosen to serve by coin toss. A player from the serving team throws the ball into the air and attempts to hit the ball so it passes over the net so that it will land in the opposing team‘s court. The opposing team must use a combination of no more than three contacts with the volleyball to return the ball to the opponent's side of the net.
These contacts usually consist first of the bump or pass so that the ball's trajectory is aimed towards the player designated as the setter; second of the set (usually an over-hand pass using wrists to push finger-tips at the ball) by the setter so that the ball's trajectory is aimed towards a spot where one of the players designated as an attacker can hit it, and third by the attacker who spikes (jumping, raising one arm above the head and hitting the ball so it will move quickly down to the ground on the opponent's court) to return the ball over the net.
The team on defense attempts to prevent the attacker from directing the ball into their court: players at the net jump and reach above the top (and if possible, across the plane) of the net in order to block the attacked ball. If the ball is hit around, above, or through the block, the defensive players arranged in the rest of the court attempt to control the ball with a dig .
The most frequent errors that are made are either to fall to return the ball over the net within the allowed three touches, or to cause the ball to land outside the court. Other common errors include a player touching the ball twice in succession, a player “catching” the ball, a player touching the net while attempting to play the ball, or a player penetrating under the net into the opponent's court.
There are a large number of other errors specified in the rules, although most of them are infrequent occurrences. These errors include back-row or libero players spiking the ball or blocking (back-row players may spike the ball if they jump from behind the attack line), players not being in the correct position when the ball is served, taking more than 8 seconds to serve or playing the ball when it is above the opponent ‘s court.
Now let's come to the key rule • Playing Area • The playing area includes the playing court and the free zone. It shall be rectangular and symmetrical. The playing court is a rectangle measuring 18×9 m, surrounded by a free zone which is a minimum of 3 m wide on all sides.
Balls • The ball shall be spherical, made of a flexible leather or synthetic leather case with a bladder inside made of rubber or a similar material. Its color may be a uniform light color, or a combination of colors. Synthetic leather material and color combinations of balls used in international official competitions should comply with FIVB standards. Its circumference is 65-67cm and its weight is 260-280 g.
TeamComposition • A team may consist of up to 12 players, one coach, one assistant coach, one trainer and one medical doctor. One of the players, other than the Libero, is the team captain, who shall be indicated on the score sheet. Only the players recorded on the score sheet may enter the court and play in the match. Once the coach and the team captain have signed the score sheet, the recorded players cannot be changed.
Equipment • A player's equipment consists of a jersey, shorts, socks (the uniform) and sport shoes. • Point • A team scores a point by successfully grounding the ball on the opponent's court; when the opponent team commits a fault; when the opponent team receives a penalty.
RallyandCompletedRally • A rally is the sequence of playing actions from the moment of the service hit by the server until the ball is out of play. A completed rally is the sequence of playing actions which results in the award of a point. If the serving team wins a rally, it scores a point and continues to serve; if the receiving team wins a rally, it scores a point and it must serve next.
To Win a Set • A set (except the deciding, 5th set) is won by the team which first scores 25 points with a minimum lead of two points. In the case of a 24-24 tie, play is continued until a two-point lead is achieved.
To Win the Match • The match is won by the team that wins three sets. In the case of a 2-2 tie, the deciding set (the 5th) is played to 15 points with a minimum lead of 2 points.
Positions • At the moment the ball is hit by the server, each team must be positioned within its own court in the rotational order (except the server). The positions of the players are numbered as follows: the three players along the net are front-row players and occupy positions 4 (front-left), 3 (front-centre) and 2 (front-right ); the other three are back-row players occupying positions 5 (back-left ), 6 (back-center) and 1 (back-right).
Rotation • Rotational order is determined by the team's starting line-up, and controlled with the service order, and played positions, throughout the set. When the receiving team has gained the right to serve, its players rotate one position clockwise: the player in position 2 rotates to position 1 to serve, the player in position 1 rotates to position 6, etc.
Ball In and Ball Out • The ball is "in“ when it touches the floor of the playing court including the boundary lines. The ball is "out”, when the part of the ball which contacts the floor is completely outside the boundary lines; it touches an object outside the court, the ceiling or a person out of play; it crosses the vertical plane of the net either partially or totally outside the crossing space; it crosses completely the lower space under the net.
Service • The service is the act of putting the ball into play, by the back right player, placed in the service zone.
Block • Blocking is the action of players close to the net to intercept the ball coming from the opponent by reaching higher than the top of the net, regardless of the height of the ball contact. Only front-row players aye permitted to complete a block, but at the moment of contact with the ball, part of the body must be higher than the top of the net.
RegularGameInterruptions • Regular game interruptions are time-outs and substitutions. An interruption is the time between one completed rally and the 1st referee's whistle for the next service. Each team is entitled to request a maximum of two time-outs (30 seconds) and six player substitutions per set.
Intervals • An interval is the time between sets. All intervals last three minutes. Durirlg this period of time, the change of courts and line-up registrations of the teams on the score sheet are made. The interval between the second and the third sets can be extended up to 10 minutes by the competent body at the request of the organizer.
ChangeofCourts • After each set, the teams change courts, with the exception of the deciding set. In the deciding set, once the leading team reaches 8 points, the teams change courts without delay and the player positions remain the same. If the change is not made once the leading team reaches 8 points, it will take place as soon as the error is noticed. The score at the time that the change is made remains the same.
TheRefereeCorps • The referee corps for a match is composed of the following officials: the first referee, the second referee, the scorer, four (two) line judges. For FIVB World and Official Competitions, an assistant scorer is compulsory.
Translation • These contacts usually consist first of the bump or pass so that the ball's trajectory is aimed towards the player designated as the setter.
Translation • The most frequent errors that are made are either to fail to return the ball over the net within the allowed three touches, or to cause the ball to land outside the court.
Translation • The team‘s starting line-up indicates the rotational order of the players on the court. This order must be maintained throughout the set.
Translation • At the moment the ball is hit by the server, each team must be positioned within its own court in the rotational order (except the server).
Translation • The ball is "in“ when it touches the floor of the playing court including the boundary lines.
Exercise • Who is your favorite Volleyball player or team?