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Patterns of Industrialization

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  1. Patterns of Industrialization 1750-1914

  2. Foundations of Industrialization • Coal critical to early indust. of Britain • Shift from wood to coal in 18th C; deforestation • Abundant, accessible coal reserves • Overseas colonies = raw materials • Plantations in Americas: sugar & cotton • Colonies= British manufactured goods market • After 1830, grain, timber, & beef shipped to Britain from US

  3. Foundations of Industrialization, con’d • Demand for cheap cotton spurred mechanization • John Kay, 1733 (flying shuttle) • Samuel Crompton, 1779 (spinning mule) • Edmund Cartwright, 1785 (power loom) • James Wattsteam engine, 1765 • Burned coal, which turned a piston, which turned a wheel • Widespread use by 1800=increased productivity, cheaper prices

  4. Yet more industrial foundations • Iron & steel important industries • Coke (purified coal) replaced charcoal • Bessemer converter (1856) made cheaper, stronger steel • Improved transportation • 1st steam-powered locomotive, 1815 • Steamships replace sailing ships, mid-19th C • Railroads & steamships lowered transportation costs

  5. The Factory System • Replaced the putting-out system • Required division of labor; everyone did single task • High degree of coordination, work discipline, close supervision • Work conditions = harsh • Workers lost status: not skilled, just wage-earners • Harsh work discipline, fast pace, frequent accidents • Industrial protest • Luddites struck against mills & destroyed machines, 1811-1816

  6. More factory system • The early spread of industrialization • Industrialization in western Europe • British industrial monopoly, 1750-1800, forbade immigration of skilled workers • Napoleon abolished internal trade barriers in W. Europe/dismantled trade guilds • Belgium & France moved toward industrialization, mid-19th C • After unification, Bismark sponsored heavy industry, arms, shipping

  7. More factory system • The early spread of industrialization • In North America, slow to start; few laborers; little capital • British craftsmen started cotton textile industry in New England, 1820s • Heavy iron & steel industries, 1870s • Rail network developed in 1860s

  8. More factory systems • Industrial capitalism • Mass production promoted cheaper goods • Eli Whitney: interchangeable parts for firearms • Henry Ford (1913): assembly line to car production • Industrialization expensive; large-capital investment • Encouraged large-scale corporations w/ hundreds of investors • New laws protected investors from liability • Monopolies, trusts, cartels • Competitive associations

  9. Industrial Society • The fruits of industry • Population growth • Raised material standards for living • Populations of Europe & America sharply rose, 1700-1900 • Better diets & sanitation reduced death rates • Demographic transition • Declining birthrate in response to declining mortality • Voluntary birth control through contraception

  10. Industrial Society • Urbanization and migration • Drew migrants from country to urban centers • By 1900, 50% of population of industrialized countries lived in towns • By 1900, more than 150 cities with over 100,000 people in Europe & N. America • Urban problems: shoddy houses, etc. • By late 19th C., gov’t passed building codes, sewers • Transcontinental migration • 1800-1920, 50 million Europeans migrated to N & S America • Fled: famine in Ireland, anti-Semitism in Russia, etc.

  11. Industrial Society • Industry & society • New social classes • Captains of industry: new aristocracy of wealth • Middle class: managers, etc. • Working class • Changes to industrial family • Long hours outside home • Increasingly separate lives

  12. Industrial society • Industry & society • Men gained increased stature & responsibility • Middle & upper-class sole providers • Valued self-improvement, discipline, & work ethic • Values on working-class men • Workers resisted work discipline • Working-class culture

  13. Industrial society • Industry & society • Opportunities for women narrowed • Can’t bring children to mines or factories • Middle-class women need to stay home & care for children • Increased opportunities in domestic service • Many children forced to work to support family • 1840s Parliament begins regulating child labor • 1881, mandatory primary education in England

  14. Industrial society • The Socialist Challenge • Utopian socialists: Charles Fourier, Robert Owen, & their followers • Established model communities based on principle of equality • Stressed cooperative control of industry, education of children

  15. Industrial society • Socialist challenge • Marx (1818-1883) and Engels (1820-1895) • Scorned the utopian socialists as unrealistic & unproductive • Critique industrial capitalism • Unrestrained competition led to ruthless exploitation of working class • State, court, police: all tools of the capitalist ruling class • The Communist Manifesto, 1848 • Excesses of capitalism would lead communist revolution • “dictatorship of the proletariat” • Socialism would follow: fair, just, egalitarian society • Ideas dominated European and international socialism

  16. Industrial Society • Socialist challenge: • Social reform came gradually • Regulated hours & restricted work for women & children • Under Bismark, Germany provided medical insurance & social security • Trade unions formed to represent workers • Stiff opposition from employers & governments • Forced employers to be more responsive to needs

  17. Global effects of industrialization • Continuing spread beyond Europe & N. America • Industrialization of Russia by tsarist gov’t • Between 1860-1900, built 35,000 miles of RR • Finance minister, Sergei Witte, promoted industry • Oversaw construction of tran-Siberian RR • Reformed commercial law to protect industries & steamship companies • Promoted nautical & engineering schools • Encouraged foreign investors • By 1900, Russia produced ½ the world’s oil, also iron & armaments

  18. Global effects of industrialization • Continuing spread beyond Europe & N. America • Industrialization in Japan also promoted by gov’t • Hired thousands of foreign experts to establish modern industries • Created new industries; opened technical institutes & universities • Government-owned businesses then sold to private entrepreneurs (zaibatsu) • Japan most industrialized in Asia by 1900

  19. Global effects of industrialization • International division of labor • Increased demand for raw materials • Non-industrial societies became suppliers of raw goods • Cotton from India; rubber from Brazil, Malay, & Congo River basin • Economic development better in lands colonized by Europe • High-wages encouraged labor-saving tech

  20. Global effects of industrialization • International division of labor • Economic dependency more common in other countries • Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, S. Asia, SE Asia • Foreign investors owned & controlled plantations & production • Free-trade policy favored foreign products over domestic • World divided into producers & consumers