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Growth of Industrialization. The Rise of Industrialism. 2.2 A Shift from craftsmanship to machine manufacturing U.S. ranked 1 st in the world for Industrial goods, ushering us into the modern age. Key Factors in Industrial Growth Abundant supply of natural resources; coal, oil, and iron ore

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the rise of industrialism
The Rise of Industrialism

2.2 A

  • Shift from craftsmanship to machine manufacturing
  • U.S. ranked 1st in the world for Industrial goods, ushering us into the modern age.

Key Factors in Industrial Growth

  • Abundant supply of natural resources; coal, oil, and iron ore
  • Improved transportation allowed coast to coast accessibility
    • International markets open up
  • Population shift from rural to urban centers.
    • Increased from 25 to over 50%, providing an abundant labor supply

Government Support for Industrialization

  • Government maintained a laissez-faire, or “hands off” approach.
  • No personal income tax until 1913, and high tariffs on foreign goods.
invention and innovation
Invention and Innovation

2.2 B

The Spirit of Innovation

  • Between 1860-1900 the U.S. Patent Office granted 676,000 patents

Steel is King

  • Henry Bessemer discovers way to produce steel that is cost effective.
    • Railroads can carry heavier cars, and travel faster
    • Steel used in beams to crate new stronger buildings, such as skyscrapers
    • Bridges can hold heavier weight

Electricity is Widespread

  • Introduction of electricity spurred innovations
    • Telegraph, and telephone increase communication
    • Escalators, elevators, central heating, and generators make life more comfortable

Machines Increase Productivity

  • Sewing Machines, and other assembly line machines speed up production
industrial leaders
Industrial Leaders

2.2C

Industrial Giants

  • John D. Rockefeller and Oil
    • Controlled 90% of the total oil industry in an attempt to monopolize it
    • Collected royalties on railroads, oil pipelines, and boats used for its transportation
  • Andrew Carnegie and Steel
    • Strong ties with railroads, and shipping lines
    • Produced ¼ of nations Bessemer’s Steel

Other Industry Leaders

  • Cornelius Vanderbilt, railroad industry
  • Duke Family, tobacco industry

“The Gilded Age”

  • Writer Mark Twain labeled this time period because of the open displays of wealth Among American elite society seemed like a cheap picture frame – Golden on the outside, but rotting on the inside.
trusts and government corruption
Trusts and Government Corruption

2.2D

The Rise of Industrial Trusts

  • As industrialism progressed, businesses combined competing companies into monstrous firms called trusts
  • Rockefeller’s Standard Oil trust was among the most monstrous trusts because he used ruthless tactics to eliminate his competition and control the oil industry.

Trusts Influence Government Affairs

  • Trusts manipulated the government at the federal, state, and local levels
  • Trusts call for minimal government regulation

City Government Corruption

  • Jane Addams, a social reformer remarked in “Why the Ward Boss Rules,” laborers tended to vote for whichever boss promised to help them
  • In Tammany Hall, bosses gave families gifts with the corrupt intent to win their political favor.
criticism and defense of big business
Criticism and Defense of Big Business

2.2E

Wealthy Americans face Criticism

  • Most Americans disapproved of the fact that so few individuals controlled the majority of America’s natural resources, industries, and utilities.

Industrialists Defend Big Business

  • Andrew Carnegie was known for his philanthropic work, donating over $350 million to both public and private works.
the impact of industrialism
The Impact of Industrialism

2.2F

Industrialization Benefits the Middle Class

  • National wealth and income grew significantly and middle-class Americans experienced greater comforts and conveniences in daily life

Life for Average Americans

  • ¾ of the population lived in crowded tenements and company towns

Industrial Working Conditions

  • Laborers worked in deplorable conditions 10-12 hours 6 days a week
  • Many are killed, permanently injured and disfigured

Low Pay and Reasons to Stay

  • With a competing supply of labor employers were anxious to maximize efficiency and were quick to dismiss workers
change and discrimination in the work force
Change and Discrimination in the Work Force

2.2G

Industrialism and Women

  • Woman’s roles shifted and more and more entered the work force
  • They worked for considerably less money, usually 50% of a man’s pay

Child Labor

  • Laborers from age 10-15 worked 15 hours a day under horrible conditions

Minority and Immigrant Laborers

  • Worked in unskilled positions and were willing to work for almost nothing
  • Business managers recruited ethnic labor groups, whom they pitted against one another to the benefit of the industry.
organized labor
Organized Labor

2.2H

Labor Unions Emerge

  • Labors organized in hope to influence big business.
  • Knights of Labor and Terence Powderly
    • Membership open to all, aimed to secure a 8 hr day, equal pay, and elimination of child labor
  • The American Federation of Labor and Samuel Gompers
    • White skilled workers, higher and safer working conditions

Business Response to Labor

  • Laissez-faire gov., and supply of laborers, had advantage over unions

Strikes and Violence

  • 1877 Pittsburgh railway workers strike resulted in over 25 deaths

Union Victories

  • Most industries set max. work hours, compensation, and child labor laws
food contamination and muckrakers
Food contamination and Muckrakers

2.2I

Consumer Fraud

  • Industrial growth brought unfair and unethical business practices
  • There were no safeguards against poor quality and misleading advertising

The Meatpacking Industry

  • Upton Sinclair investigated meatpacking industries and wrote The Jungle
  • Uncovered diseased pork, bologna made of diseased cow, sawdust, and dirt
  • Helped influence Theodore Roosevelt to pass meat inspection laws
  • 100’s of soldiers died in the Spanish American War from eating tainted meat

Muckrakers

  • Those who concentrated on exposing the ills of society rather than proposing solutions to them. They actually helped pave way for future reforms.
the toll on the environment
The Toll on the Environment

2.22J

Environmental impact

  • Increase in the use of nonrenewable, or polluting fuels (oil, coal, natural gas)

Mining and Deforestation

  • Methods used were devastating to environment
  • They included blasting mountain sides, and dumping waste into rivers
  • Forests were leveled, and permanently destroyed

Air and Water pollution

  • Industries disregard for the environment resulted in water and air pollution

Environmental Reformers

  • Gifford Pinchot, founder of the American Conservation Movement, and John Muir both fought to reform the timber industry