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C HASE A QUILANO J ACOBS. Operations Management. For Competitive Advantage. Chapter 4. Process Analysis. ninth edition. Chapter 4 Process Analysis. Process Analysis Process Flowcharting Types of Processes Process Performance Metrics. Process Analysis Terms.

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CHASE AQUILANO JACOBS

Operations Management

For Competitive Advantage

Chapter 4

Process Analysis

ninth edition

chapter 4 process analysis
Chapter 4Process Analysis
  • Process Analysis
  • Process Flowcharting
  • Types of Processes
  • Process Performance Metrics
process analysis terms
Process Analysis Terms
  • Process: Is any part of an organization that takes inputs and transforms them into outputs.
  • Cycle Time: Is the average successive time between completions of successive units.
  • Utilization: Is the ratio of the time that a resource is actually activated relative to the time that it is available for use.
process flowcharting defined
Process FlowchartingDefined
  • Process flowchartingis the use of a diagram to present the major elements of a process. The basic elements can include tasks or operations, flows of materials or customers, decision points, and storage areas or queues.
  • It is an ideal methodology by which to begin analyzing a process.
flowchart symbols
Flowchart Symbols

Tasks or operations

Examples: Giving an admission ticket to a customer, installing a engine in a car, etc.

Examples: How much change should be given to a customer, which wrench should be used, etc.

Decision Points

flowchart symbols continued
Flowchart Symbols (Continued)

Storage areas or queues

Examples: Sheds, lines of people waiting for a service, etc.

Examples: Customers moving to the a seat, mechanic getting a tool, etc.

Flows of materials or customers

example flowchart of student going to school
Example: Flowchart of Student Going to School

Yes

Go to school today?

Drive to school

Walk to class

No

Goof off

multistage process
Multistage Process

Stage 1

Stage 2

Stage 3

multistage process with buffer
Multistage Process with Buffer

Buffer

Stage 1

Stage 2

other types of processes
Other Types of Processes
  • Make-to-order
    • Only activated in response to an actual order.
    • Both work-in-process and finished goods inventory kept to a minimum.
  • Make-to-stock
    • Process activated to meet expected or forecast demand.
    • Customer orders are served from target stocking level.
process performance metrics
Process Performance Metrics
  • Operation time = Setup time

Run time

  • Throughput time = Average time for a unit to move through the system
  • Velocity = Throughput time

Value-added time

process performance metrics continued
Process Performance Metrics (Continued)
  • Cycle time = Average time between completion of units
  • Throughput rate = 1 .

Cycle time

  • Efficiency = Actual output

Standard Output

process performance metrics continued1
Process Performance Metrics (Continued)
  • Productivity = Output

Input

  • Utilization = Time Activated

Time Available

cycle time example
Cycle Time Example
  • Suppose you had to produce 600 units in 80 hours to meet the demand requirements of a product. What is the cycle time to meet this demand requirement?
  • Answer: There are 4,800 minutes (60 minutes/hour x 80 hours) in 80 hours. So the average time between completions would have to be: Cycle time = 4,800/600 units = 8 minutes.
process throughput time reduction
Process Throughput Time Reduction
  • Perform activities in parallel.
  • Change the sequence of activities.
  • Reduce interruptions.