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England ’ s Glorious Revolution

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  1. England’s Glorious Revolution World Studies October 20

  2. I. The Tudor Monarchs • Henry VIII dies in 1547 • His only son, Edward becomes king • He is 9 years old, dies 6 years later • His oldest daughter Mary becomes queen • Is Catholic, married to a Spaniard, crazy • Dies in 1558, leaves the throne to Elizabeth, hopes she’ll keep England Catholic

  3. II. Elizabeth I • Is queen of England for 45 years • Develops a huge modern navy • Allowed piracy to get a piece of trade • 1588 - Spanish Armada attacks, England wins • Encourages exploration and development of colonies • Never marries, despite Parliament’s pleas • Literature flourished during the Golden Age - Shakespeare

  4. III. James Stuart • Elizabeth died in 1603 without an heir • Closest relative was James VI, king of Scotland • Son of Mary, Queen of Scots who had been dethroned by John Knox/the Presbyterians • Becomes king of England in 1603, James I • Leaves Scotland and moves to England • He was happy to leave, but the English were suspicious of him

  5. The Stuarts

  6. James and Religion • His mother had been Catholic, so English Catholics hoped he’d favor them • When he didn’t Guy Fawkes led the failed Gunpowder Plot to blow up Parliament • James and Money • Spent tons and tons of money; believed it was his right • Parliament tried to cut him off, so he sold titles to raise spending money

  7. James’ Accomplishments • Commissioned the King James’ version of the Bible • Was very intelligent, furthered arts, sciences, and exploration • Jamestown Colony is named after him • Succession • James had 8 children • His second son, Charles, became king when he died

  8. IV. Charles I • Marries a French Catholic • Gives many government positions to Catholics • Most people aren’t happy about this • Problems with Parliament • Parliament won’t do anything for him • Parliament can’t meet unless the king calls them – he refuses to for 11 years • Creates new taxes to raise money

  9. Problems with Religion • Tries to force people to accept a new prayer book • Protestants begin to revolt • Charles calls Parliament for help to raise an army to stop the revolt • They refused to unless he gave them more power • He dissolves Parliament & tries to arrest some members

  10. V. English Civil War (1642-1651) • Cavaliers vs. Roundheads • Cavaliers - the royalists who supported the king and monarchy • Roundheads - supporters of Parliament • Some were Puritans who wore their hair short • New Model Army, led by Oliver Cromwell, was well organized

  11. Cavaliers and Cromwell

  12. Charles I is forced to surrender in 1648 • The Rump Parliament (those left after the royalists were kicked out) voted 68-67 to execute the king

  13. VI. Cromwell and the Commonwealth • A Puritan who disliked Catholicism • After Charles’ execution there were rumors that royalist Catholics in Ireland were killing Protestants • Cromwell went up and wiped out villages, seized Catholic land, and forbid Catholicism • England declares itself a republic • Infighting begins again in Parliament • Cromwell becomes Lord Protector (dictator)

  14. VII. Restoration of the Monarchy • Cromwell died peacefully of malaria • Although he had discriminated against Catholics, he did improve other things for England • His son takes over, but is kicked out a few months later

  15. VIII. Charles II • Second son of Charles I • Had escaped to France after his father’s death • Moved to Scotland, where he was still recognized as king • Entered England with an army to fight Cromwell, but lost and had to retreat • Invited back to England to be king after Cromwell’s death

  16. Gave amnesty (pardon) to all the Roundheads • Except those who voted for his father’s death • Was given strict limitations on his spending

  17. Problems • Great Plague of 1665 • 20% of the population dies, mostly the poor • London Fire of 1666 • 13,200 houses are burnt down • Fire kills the rats and fleas; ending the plague • Leads to brick/stone construction, fire depts., cleaner city

  18. His wife could not have children; no heir • Wanted his brother to inherit, but Parliament wouldn’t allow it since he was Catholic • Since Parliament wouldn’t give him money he made a secret deal with France • Louis XIV gave him an allowance, but made him promise to convert to Catholicism • Does on his death bed

  19. IX. James II • Brother of Charles II, son of Charles I • Is allowed to become king after all • Decide he’s not a threat to Protestantism as he has no male heirs • His wife dies and he marries a Catholic who soon gives birth to a boy • Tries to force Catholicism, just as Bloody Mary did

  20. X. William and Mary • Mary, James II’s Protestant daughter, is married to Protestant William of Orange • He’s older and he has a mistress; she’s homesick and subservient • England invites them to take the throne from James • They agree to come as co-rulers, but under Parliament’s conditions

  21. XI. Glorious Revolution • William and Mary enter in 1688 • A bloodless revolution; James has no support • Toleration Bill of 1689 • Gives religious freedom to all Christians • Pass a Bill of Rights • Legally places the monarch under Parliament • No more absolute power in Great Britain • Mary dies in 1694, William in 1702 • Her sister Anne becomes queen