Wayang Puppet Show: Spiritual Norm and Ritual Form of Worship through Aesthetic Devotions Bali Module for East 15th Acting School Essex University August 1st - 21st 2011 Prof. I Nyoman Sedana, Ph.D.
Spiritual norm/practice:Kala chases Kumara Aesthetic devotion: Wayang puppet show Through Ritual Form of worship:wayang holy water to purify a man • Tantra=spiritual norm, practice &ritual forms (believe-based culture): • Yantra=holy forms • Mudra=hand gestures • Mantra=incantations
Tantra: spiritual norms & practice – ritual forms Tantra: Spiritual Norms (Dharma Pewayangan) Yantra RITUAL FORMS Mudra HAND GESTURE and ACTIVITIES Mantra INCANTATION
Spiritual norm why puppeteer is a priest: Mythology Siwagama Longing for Parwati, God Siwa (Shiva) transforms into the Demon Kala Rudra. Sanghyang Trisemaya SHIVAISM SOMYA RUPA PEACE Holy men ISWARA= Puppeteer Performing artists His coitus with Durga results in a myriad of demons that carry pestilence and terror BRAHMA WISNU= Assistants Caturlokapala= musician
Another Tantra the spiritual practice: Mythology of Kala Purana Since Kumara is born on wayang week, Kala will devour him. Kumara escapes to seek refuge to the Middle world Two sons of God Shiva: Sanghyang Adi Kala and Rare Kumara Kasinuhun Kidul grants Kala a privilege of devouring mankind: all those born within the week of wayang, walking during the sun reaches its zenith, quarrelling at sunset, and roaming about during dusk. Dalang takes Kumara and put him into the hollow of bamboo tube resonator Kala comes and devours puppet offering. Dalang sue Kala unable to return the prescribed offering Kala authorizes dalang to purify people with Tirta Penyapuhleger (destroying defilement, sin, and impurity) or Tirta Panyudamalan (cleaning bodily blemish and deformities). Evils shall be exorcized by the Tirta Panglukatan of Dalang priest.
Indian Tantra Mythology Tolpavakoothu puppet from Kerala God Brahma Gods & Rsi God Siva Asurastri God Siva perform shadow puppet TOLPAWAKOOTHU Detya Darika creates terror DEVI BHADRAKALI/ BHAGAWATI To deafeat Using weapons of Nawasanga
Similar altar used for wayang Triangle altar Ritual forms Offerings on the Dalang’s side Meru 3-stories
Wayang puppet holy water in contemporary Bali A patron commission puppet show to obtain holy water (by sprinkling, cleaning mouth and face, drink, and wash him/herself from the head) typically become more mentally stable, civilized, and facing less and less accident or problems. Collective ruwatan purification in order to share the cost as on March 27th 2011by Badung Regent. Unable to commission the show one may come to the dalang’s house during the week of wayang or approach dalang at the end of puppet show with a minimum offering.
Mudra & Mantra The fresh water being transformed into holy is inside a rodiac silver beaker on a wanci raised tray.
Mantra and Mudra—along the 30 steps in creation of wayang holy water—may be briefly quoted step number 6: Take and hold another petal over the censer while reciting Mantra: Ong gunung mas apucak manik akrikil nawa ratna, inapungan ing naga patra, ingaranan Sanghyang Merti Tita Kamandalu, maka uriping watek Nawa Sanga, maka patirtan ira Sang Pandita Ratu, anglukata anglebura sakwehing lara wigna, jadma manusa ing madya pada wenang anglebur gering kabeh lupa lelep arip, purna sewu satusing papa klesa lara roga lara wigna, kalukatakna upataning bapa ibu kaki nini buyut. Om lukat, lukat, lukat. Om awignamastu swaha. Meaning: OM the golden mountain with a jewel as its summit, and, the nine pearls serve as the gravel, encircled by an ornament (finger ring) consisting of naga snakes, called the Divine Ambrosia Kamandalu, the Life Force of the Nine Gods, the Holy Water of the Kings of Priests. May it exorcize all suffering and hindrances afflicting mankind in the Middle World. May it remove all illnesses, failures of memory, tiredness of the eyes and of the mind. May they are freed from 1100 evils and illnesses. May it undo the effects of the curses of parents, of grand parents, and of great grand parents. OM Exorcize, Exorcize, Exorcize!). I then drop the petal into the water in the beaker.
The final stage: puppet stick stirs up holy water Natural energy creates holy water: Fire incense Mineral 11 tarupremana flowers Coconut oil of the lamp Rice Each delivered via mantra incantations
Dalang is a bridge of beauty connecting two realms Yantra Wayang Sapuh Leger (ritual form)* Mudra Implementation for he beneficiary* Dalang’s devoition in ritual worship employs Yantra, Mudra, and Mantra Mantra puja incantation*
Dalang a bridge between sekala dand niskala In the ritual show of puppet Sapuhleger By performing the wayang ritualistic theatre, dalang communicates with the gods in the spiritual realm to transform the ordinary water of material realm into the holy water of the sacred space for the human purification in the profane space Dalang Tirta holy water Mantra, sacred Nawa Ratna Mudra Dalang, ordinary Pure water Yantra wayang, seculer
Mudra (gesture) and Mantra (incantation) Sprinkling holy water to the beneficiary
Thematic links underlying Asian ancestral deliverance Tantra Japan China Indonesia Puppet show Marionette Mulian Wayang Kulit Bima Bonraku Mokurenki Myth/ Story Mulian rescues his mother from the underworld Bima rescues his parent from the hell Mokurenki rescues his mother from Hades Ancestral Ceremony Hungry Ghost Festival/ Qingming Ngaben-Nyilawati cremation Obon/Ochūgen Festival
Five Components of • Asian Ancestral Deliverance in Performative Format • Qualified living descendant to rescue the parent by transferring merits, • Causes and effects of karmic law as the driving force, • Puppet show with the story of ritual liberation, • Commemorating ancestor (Tangsan/Leluhur/Ibu) or parent soul/spirit (jiwatma) as the object, • Ceremony creating public awareness about spirit liberation.
Causes and effects of karmic law as the driving force • Good karma is more helpful than knowledge or even super natural power. • Absolute law of karma makes no one is immune from the causes and effects of one own karma: • In virtual reality puppet show formulates sins: • Mulian’s mother, Madame Liu, served dog meat • Bima’s father, Pandu, killed sage Kindama • Mokurenki’s mother: greed and self important. • Mokuren’s former life to kill his father that caused him to be killed badly by bandits
Puppet show presenting virtual reality of human liberation Chinese puppet show presenting the story of Mulian Jiu mu ji rescuing his mother from the under world; Indonesian puppet show enacting Bima goes to heaven (Bima Swarga) to rescue his parent from the Hades. Japanese puppet show presenting story of sekkyobushi play in which Mokurenki rescues his mother from hell
Commemorating ancestor • Spirit (jiwatma) of Tangsan/Leluhur/Ibu • Hungry Ghost and Qingming festival in China • Ngaben and Nyilawati cremation for the dead in Bali. • O-bon and Ochūgen ancestor celebration in Japan. • Contemporary extension of Asian traditional ethic of "universal love" • Both in China and Bali: "Worldly fortunes belong to the 'five families' of flood, fire, the unfilial, the corrupt and thieves – it will not remain. Only merits will remain because nothing but karma remains after a person passes away."
Ceremony creates public awareness ACTUAL REALITY CONCLUSION Domains of Asian ancestral deliverance in performative format RITUAL about Asian ancestral deliverance Commemorating and looking after the ancestors THATRE Puppet show with the story of ritual liberation PHILOSOPHY Causes and effects of karmic law as the driving force HUMANISM Qualified man to rescue by transferring merits RELEGY HinduismConfucianism Buddhism Taoism Belief