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Ch. 6: Verbal Communication language is both universal and cultural. People have a “language instinct” Culture=>variable languages!. Language is a system of arbitrary symbols used by members of a speech community to communicate, interact, and transmit information and culture.
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Language is a system of arbitrary symbols used by members of a speech community to communicate, interact, and transmit information and culture.
Phonetics=Words and their Sounds
Syntax = Words and other Words
Semantics = words & their meaning
Pragmatics = Words and their Users
“I came to school on the bus”
“I came to school on the taxi”
I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid! Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh?
Symbol= word/sound/visual that represents an object, sound, thought or experience. (p. 153)
can change over
personal, subjective meaning
Carlin on Words you can’t say on TV:
Referent or thing (small four-legged animal that meows)
Word or Symbol (cat)
Charles Ogden & Ivor Richards
--symbolic interaction theory (language binds people together via shared meaning)
New words? What do they suggest about our culture?
Does language constrain thought? Can different cultures with different words think different things?
Savoir-faire, Schadenfreude, amae
Hopi= “masa’ytaka” (p. 160)
Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: language both shapes and is impacted by culture (p. 160)
Are we shaped by our names?
Bottom line: WORDS MATTER.
“do you have a USB port? DSL internet?”
Sexist (see p. 167)
Demeaning (age or mental abilities)
Marked vs. Unmarked terms (i.e. “male nurse”, “adopted child” “gay friend”)
WOMEN more likely to..
MEN more likely to…
Short Essay Grading Scale:
7pts or below=missing details, adequate answer
9pts=great detail, terminology, examples
10pts=stellar in use of terminology, connections, thoughtfulness.
“Self disclosure is when a person moves something from the “Hidden” window of the Johari square to the “open” window. That is to say that the person discloses some secret to the other person in the relationship. This is huge in forming relationships! The receiver might be looking to reduce uncertainty and the info might do this, and eliminate some of the superimposing done by the receiver. It may also scare off the receiver. Any way you look at it, self-disclosure usually changes a relationship—for better or worse.”