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Ch. 6: Verbal Communication language is both universal and cultural. People have a “language instinct” Culture=>variable languages!. Language is a system of arbitrary symbols used by members of a speech community to communicate, interact, and transmit information and culture.

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slide1

Ch. 6: Verbal Communication

  • language is both universal and cultural.
  • People have a “language instinct”
  • Culture=>variable languages!
slide2

Language is a system of arbitrary symbols used by members of a speech community to communicate, interact, and transmit information and culture.

Language Subsystems:

Phonetics=Words and their Sounds

Syntax = Words and other Words

Semantics = words & their meaning

Pragmatics = Words and their Users

slide3

Language is full of subtle rules.

(Syntactics)

“I came to school on the bus”

“I came to school on the taxi”

slide4

I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid! Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy, it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh?

slide5

Language is the most advanced system of symbols we know.

Symbol= word/sound/visual that represents an object, sound, thought or experience. (p. 153)

slide8

English

Postcard,

well before

Nazism

Lesson: symbols

can change over

time!

slide9

DENOTATION=dictionary definition

  • Dog    /dɔg, dɒg/ Show Spelled [dawg, dog] Show IPA noun, verb, dogged, dog·ging.
  • noun 1. a domesticated canid, Canisfamiliaris,  bred in many varieties.
  • 2. any carnivore of the dogfamilyCanidae, having prominent canine teeth and, in the wild state, a long and slender muzzle, a deep-chested muscular body, a bushy tail, and large, erect ears. Compare canid.

CONNOTATION=

personal, subjective meaning

Miss Lucy! 

denotation vs connotation
Denotation vs. Connotation

Carlin on Words you can’t say on TV:

Updates:

http://www.nytimes.com/2008/11/02/weekinreview/02liptak.html?pagewanted=all

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/14/business/media/14vulgar.html

how do words work
How do words work?

Thought

Referent or thing (small four-legged animal that meows)

Word or Symbol (cat)

Charles Ogden & Ivor Richards

words can be
Words can be…
  • Symbolic of the concrete or abstract
  • ARBITRARY (we give them meaning)

--exception: onomatopoeias

  • Contextual and culture bound

--symbolic interaction theory (language binds people together via shared meaning)

New words? What do they suggest about our culture?

http://www.merriam-webster.com/info/newwords12.htm

slide14

Does language constrain thought? Can different cultures with different words think different things?

Savoir-faire, Schadenfreude, amae

Hopi= “masa’ytaka” (p. 160)

Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis: language both shapes and is impacted by culture (p. 160)

naming practices
Naming Practices
  • Naming: Symbolic communication in everyday life

Are we shaped by our names?

http://www.ssa.gov/OACT/babynames/

words power
Words=power
  • To create perceptions (framing!)
  • To influence thought
  • To influence action (persuasion!)
  • Make or break relationships

Bottom line: WORDS MATTER.

ways to boost verbal effectiveness end of chapter pp 171 181
Ways to Boost Verbal Effectiveness (end of chapter, pp. 171-181)
  • Dialogue (coming together) vs debate (winning, finding fault, one answer)
  • “I” language vs. “you” language
    • Solve problems vs. just critique the person.
  • Empathy, flexibility, equality
  • True apologies=acknowledges you were wrong.
  • Assertive vs. aggressive (denying rights of others
some word problems
Some word problems
  • Euphemisms (‘collateral damage’)
  • “allness” (sweeping generalizations!)
  • Restricted code/jargon

“do you have a USB port? DSL internet?”

  • Polarization
  • Hate speech
biased language
Biased Language

Sexist (see p. 167)

Racial/ethnic

Demeaning (age or mental abilities)

Marked vs. Unmarked terms (i.e. “male nurse”, “adopted child” “gay friend”)

gender language
Gender & Language
  • Is this ==

True?

  • Problems?
  • “Report talk vs.
    • Rapport talk”
gender differences p 170
Gender Differences (p. 170)

WOMEN more likely to..

  • Establish equality
  • Show support
  • Keep conversation going
  • Include others
  • Be more tentative

MEN more likely to…

  • Establish power, status, worth
  • Use talk for tasks and problem solving
  • Interrupt more (?)
  • Be more assertive
sound style differences
Sound/Style differences:
  • Lexical: color discriminations, adjectives
  • Syntactical:tag questions, qualifiers, disclaimers
  • Intonation: up-speak
exam one
Exam One
  • Several people got in the A-range! Excellent job!

Short Essay Grading Scale:

7pts or below=missing details, adequate answer

8pts=solid answer

9pts=great detail, terminology, examples

10pts=stellar in use of terminology, connections, thoughtfulness.

sample 10pt answer
Sample 10pt Answer

“Self disclosure is when a person moves something from the “Hidden” window of the Johari square to the “open” window. That is to say that the person discloses some secret to the other person in the relationship. This is huge in forming relationships! The receiver might be looking to reduce uncertainty and the info might do this, and eliminate some of the superimposing done by the receiver. It may also scare off the receiver. Any way you look at it, self-disclosure usually changes a relationship—for better or worse.”