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##### Brownian flights

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**(1)**(2) Brownian flights A.Batakis (1), D.Grebenkov (2),K.Kolwankar, P.Levitz (2), B.Sapoval, M.Zinsmeister (1) (2) Funded by: ANR Mipomodim, zins@math.cnrs.fr**The polymers that possess electrical charges**(polyelectrolytes) are soluble in the water because of hydrogen bondings. The water molecules exhibit a dynamics made of adsorptions (due to hydrogen bondings) on the polymers followed by Brownian diffusions in the liquid.**The dynamics of the water molecules can be seen as an**intermittent one: flights around the surface (« quick motion ») followed by a « slow » motion on the surface itself. In this talk we will ignore the adsorption steps. We are interested in the statistics of the flights , that is their duration and their length and wish to connect them to the geometry of the surface.**First passage statistics for**and Brownian flights over a fractal nest: P.L et al; P.R.L. (May 2006)**Polymers and colloids in suspension exhibit rich and fractal**geometry:**Main point: These statistics can be measured in experiences**by using relaxometry methods in NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance).**I(t)**NMR Relaxation L R1slow(f) a FTt(<I(0).I(t)>) A I(t) L L B0 time A R1Slow(f) A f NMR EXPERIMENTATION I(t+t)**Mathematical simulation of a flight:**We consider a surface or a curve which is fractal up to a certain scale, typically a piecewise affine approximation of a self-affine curve or surface. We then choose at random an affine piece and consider a point in the complement of the surface nearby this piece. We then start a Brownian motion from this point stopped when it hits back the surface and consider the length and duration of this flight.**We have to precise the term « random »:**If we consider only one flight there are two natural models: Uniform law: all points at a fixed vicinity of the surface have the same probability of being chosen as the starting point The point is chosen as the first hitting point on the surface of a Brownian motion started from a distinguished point :=the harmonic measure**In practise it is impossible to decide if it is the first**flight. If m is a distribution on the boundary, the law of the hitting point at the end of the flight is a new distribution T(m) Is there an invariant distribution? If one starts the process with one of the 2 above mentionned distributions, does the law of the nth hitting point converge to an invariant distribution?**2) Experimenal results:**If we want to perform experiments one problem immediately arises: The flights we consider are not first flights. One solution: to use molecules that are non-fractal and homogeneous**First Test: Probing a Flat Surface**AFM Observations An negatively charged particle P.L et al Langmuir (2003)**EXPERIMENTS VERSUS ANALYTICAL MODEL FOR FLAT INTERFACES**Laponite Glass at C= 4% w/w a=3/2 P.L. et al Europhysics letters, (2005), P.L. J. Phys: Condensed matter (2005)**Water NMR relaxation**Almost Dilute suspension of Imogolite colloids**Magnetic Relaxation Dispersion of Lithium Ion in Solution of**DNADNA from Calf Thymus(From B. Bryant et al, 2003) R1(s-1)**Brownian Exponants exponents: Influence of the surface**roughness: Self similarity/ Self affinity(D. Grebenkov, K.M. Kolwankar, B. Sapoval, P. Levitz) 3D 2D**dsurface=1.25**POSSIBLE EXTENSION TO LOW MINKOWSKI DIMENSIONS: (1<dsurface<2 with dambiant=3)**4) A simple 2D model.**We consider a simple 2D model for which we can rigorously derive the statistics of flights. In this model the topological structure of the level lines of the distance-to-the-curve function is trivial.**Case of the second flight:**There is an invariant measure equivalent with harmonic measure**v**U u General case: we want to compare the probability P(u,v,U) that a Brownian path started at u touches the red circle of center v and radius half the distance from v to the boundary of U before the boundary of U with its analogue P(v,u,U)**This last result is not true in d=2 without some extra**condition. But we are going to assume this condition anyhow to hold in any dimension since we will need it for other purposes. In dimension d it is well-known that sets of co-dimension greater or equal to 2 are not seen by Brownian motion. For the problem to make sense it is thus necessary to assume that the boundary is uniformly « thick ». This condition is usually defined in terms of capacity. It is equivalent to the following condition:**Every open subset in the d-dimensional space can be**partitionned (modulo boundaries) as a union of dyadic cubes such that: (Whitney decomposition) For all integers j we define Wj =the number of Whitney cubes of order j.**We now wish to relate the numbers Wj to numbers related to**Minkowski dimension. For a compact set E and k>0 we define Nk as the number of (closed) dyadic cubes of order k that meet E.**This gives a rigourous justification of the results of the**simulations in the case of the complement of a closed set of zero Lebesgue measure. For the complement of a curve in 2D in particular, it gives the result if we allow to start from both sides.**A pair (U,E) where U is a domain and E its boundary is said**to be porous if for every x in E and r>0 (r<diam(E)) B(x,r) contains a ball of radius >cr also included in U. U**If the pair (U,E) is porous it is obvious that the numbers**Wj and Nj are essentially the same. So if the domain is porous, have a « thick » boundary and a Minkowski dimension, then the power-law satisfied by the statistics of the flights is the expected one. Problem: the domain left to a SAW is not porous.**Self-Avoiding Walk,**S.A.W. d=4/3**Theorem (Beffara, Rohde-Schramm): The dimension of the SLEk**curve is 1+k/8. Theorem (Rohde-Schramm): The conformal mapping from UHP onto Ut is Holder continuous (we say that Ut is a Holder domain).