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Arthropods and Their Relatives. Characteristics Exoskeleton (external covering made of CHITIN ) Molts or sheds exoskeleton to grow Jointed appendages - Groups very often named in relation to number or type of feet.

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arthropods and their relatives
Arthropods and Their Relatives
  • Characteristics
    • Exoskeleton (external covering made of CHITIN)
    • Molts or sheds exoskeleton to grow
    • Jointed appendages - Groups very often named in relation to number or type of feet.
    • Tend to undergo metamorphosis or pass through a number of distinct growth stages during their lives
    • Tendency toward High degree of cephalization, especially in Class Insecta
  • Relative abundance.
    • 3/4 of all known species of animals are arthropods.
    • More known species of arthropods than known species of plants and animals combined. Great diversity in form and habitat.
major groups of arthropods
Major Groups of Arthropods
  • Subphylum Trilobita - all forms extinct (believed) perhaps some of earliest arthropods
  • Subphylum Chelicerata - First pair of appendages form chelicera or pincher-like structures used for feeding. 4 pair of walking legs, no antennae. The Arachnida is the only important parasitic group.
major groups of arthropods1
Major Groups of Arthropods
  • Subphylum Crustacea - mostly aquatic, most have gills, two pair of antennae. Biramous appendages, meaning limbs have more than one branch. Also have mandibles. Some are parasitic but we will not cover them.
  • Subphylum Uriramia – single branch or uriramous appendages, mandibles, one pair of antennae
major groups of arthropods2
Major Groups of Arthropods
  • Diplopoda - Millipedes - two pair of legs per body segment
  • Chilopoda - Centipedes - one pair of legs per body segment
  • Insecta - 3 pair of legs on adults, many with wings, most important group
  • Simple or gradual
    • three changes
      • egg
      • nymph
        • 3-5 instars
      • adult
    • adults and nymphs
      • eat same food
  • Complex or complete
    • four changes
      • egg
      • larva
      • pupa
      • adult
    • larvae and adults
      • eat different food
        • larvae are destructive
fundamental external structure
Fundamental External structure
  • Insects
    • 3 body regions
      • head
      • thorax
      • abdomen
    • 3 pair legs attached to thorax
    • 1 pair antennae
    • wings usually present in adult state.

Hind Wing

Fore Wing


Simple Eye

Compound Eye

Jumping Leg





Walking Legs





circulatory system
Circulatory System
  • Closed circulatory system
  • Well developed heart pumps blood
  • Heart is long and narrow
  • Arteries branch into blood vessels and return blood to the heart via veins – cool, just like us!
  • Recall the Nephridia in Annelids
  • The Malphigian Tubules in Arthropods collect nitrogenous wastes in the tubules from blood
  • Wastes are concentrated (like a kidney does.) Why concentrated?
  • Excreted out anus
respiratory system
Respiratory System
  • Gills or lungs, as you’ll see on the next slide 
  • Organism is too large to rely on surface area. That is, the internal volume is too great to be supplied with oxygen from a minimal SA.
sensory adaptations
Sensory Adaptations
  • Well developed nervous system
  • Compound eyes with many lenses give Mosaic Vision or multi-images
the compound eye
The Compound Eye

Each crystalline eye generates an image. All images together generate a mosaic effect

simple eye ocelli
Simple Eye (Ocelli)
  • Do not form the picture
  • Just gather light
  • Tell whether it’s light or dark
external structure of subphylum chelicerata class arachnae
External structure of Subphylum Chelicerata, Class Arachnae
  • Chelicerates have specialized mouthparts called chelicerae – think of the hooked grabbers!
  • Arachnids (spiders and mites)
    • 2 body regions
      • Cephalothorax
      • abdomen
    • usually 4 pair legs
    • no wings
    • no antennae