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Arthropods and Echinoderms. Phylum Arthropoda. Most diverse phylum Most successful of all time About 1 million species have been identified = more than 3 times the number of all other animal species combined!!. What is an Arthropod. Includes insects, crabs, centipedes, and spiders

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phylum arthropoda
Phylum Arthropoda
  • Most diverse phylum
  • Most successful of all time
  • About 1 million species have been identified
  • = more than 3 times the number of all other animal species combined!!
what is an arthropod
What is an Arthropod
  • Includes insects, crabs, centipedes, and spiders
  • All have segmented bodies, tough exoskeletons, and jointed appendages
exoskeletons
Exoskeletons
  • Provide protection and support
  • Made of protein and carbohydrate called chitin
  • Vary in shape, size and toughness
  • Terrestrial arthropods have waxy covering to prevent water loss
appendages
Appendages
  • Appendages: structures such as legs and antennae that extend from the body wall
  • All are jointed
  • Include antennae, claws, walking legs, wings, flippers, mouthparts, tails, and other specialized structures
  • Named for this: arthron means “joint” in Greek, and podos means “foot”
evolution of arthropods
Evolution of Arthropods
  • First arthropods appeared in the sea more than 600 million yrs. Ago
  • Live in every habitat on Earth: sea, freshwater, land, and air
  • Evolution has led to fewer body segments and highly specialized appendages for feeding, movement, and other functions
form and function
Form and Function
  • Use complex organ systems
  • Feeding: herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores
  • Bloodsuckers, filter feeders, detritivores, and parasites
  • Mouthparts modified for chewing, sponging, sucking, and probing
form and function1
Form and Function
  • Respiration
  • Terrestrial arthropods breathe through network of branching tracheal tubes that extend throughout the body
  • Air enters and leaves the tubes through spiracles: small openings located on outside of body
  • Spiders have book lungs: organs with layers of respiratory tissues stacked like a book
  • Aquatic arthropods use featherlike gills or book gills
form and function2
Form and Function
  • Open circulatory system
  • Well-developed heart pumps blood through arteries that branch and enter the tissues
  • Leaves vessels moves through sinuses or cavities
  • Collects in large sinus surrounding heart
  • Re-enters heart and is again pumped through body
form and function3
Form and Function
  • Excretion
  • Terrestrial arthropods use malpighian tubules: saclike organs that extract wastes from the blood and then add them to feces that move through the gut
  • Aquatic arthropods use diffusion to move cellular wastes from the body to the water
form and function4
Form and Function
  • Well developed nervous systems
  • Have brains that receive information and send it out to muscles
  • Two nerves connect brain to a ventral nerve cord
  • Along nerve cord are several ganglia that coordinate movements of individual legs and wings
  • Sophisticated sense organs: compound eyes may have more than 2000 separate lenses to detect color and motion very well
form and function5
Form and Function
  • Movement by well-developed groups of muscles made of individual muscle cells that contract and pull on exoskeleton
  • At each joint, different muscles either flex or extend
form and function6
Form and Function
  • Reproduction
  • Terrestrial arthropods have internal fertilization
  • Some put sperm inside female, others deposit sperm packet that female picks up
  • Aquatic arthropods may have internal or external fertilization
growth and development
Growth and Development
  • Exoskeleton does not grow, must be shed as arthropod gets bigger
  • Molting: shedding of entire exoskeleton and making a new one
  • Controlled by hormones
  • Can take several hours
  • Makes them vulnerable to predators while shell is still soft
  • Most hide during molting or molt at night
groups of arthropods
Groups of Arthropods
  • Arthropods are classified based on the number and structure of their body segments and appendages – particularly their mouthparts
subphylum crustacea
Subphylum Crustacea
  • Mostly aquatic
  • Includes crabs, shrimps, lobsters, crayfishes, and barnacles
  • Range in size from small terrestrial pill bugs to enormous spider crabs up to 20 kilograms
  • Typically have 2 pairs of antennae, 2 or 3 body sections, and chewing mouthparts called mandibles
subphylum crustacea1
Subphylum Crustacea
  • Cephalothorax: anterior, fusion of head with the thorax
  • Thorax: holds internal organs
  • Abdomen: posterior part of the body
  • Carapace: part of the exoskeleton covering the cephalothorax
subphylum crustacea2
Subphylum Crustacea
  • 1st 2 pairs of appendages are antennae covered in sensory hairs
  • Used as sensory organs, filter-feeding, or swimming
  • 3rd pair are the mandibles adapted for biting and grinding food
  • Gills are attached to appendages associated with the cephalothorax
subphylum crustacea3
Subphylum Crustacea
  • Decapods: crayfish, lobsters, and crabs
  • Largest group of crustaceans
  • Five pairs of legs
  • 1st pair of legs called chelipeds, bear large claws modified to catch, pick up, crush and cut food
  • 4 pairs of walking legs
  • Along abdomen are several pairs of swimmerets: flipperlike appendages used for swimming
  • Final abdominal segment is fused to form a large, flat tail: uropod
subphylum chelicerata
Subphylum Chelicerata
  • Includes horseshoe crabs, spiders, ticks, and scorpions
  • Have mouthparts called chelicerae and two body segments and 4 pairs of walking legs
  • No antennae
  • Cephalothorax contains brain, eyes, mouth, and walking legs
  • Abdomen contains internal organs
subphylum chelicerata1
Subphylum Chelicerata
  • Chelicerae contain fangs used to stab and paralyze prey
  • Pedipalps used to grab prey
  • Respire with either book gills or book lungs
  • Two main classes: Merostomata and Arachnida
subphylum chelicerata2
Subphylum Chelicerata
  • Class Merostomata
  • Includes horseshoe crabs
  • Oldest living arthropods: first appeared 500 mya
  • Not true crabs at all
  • Anatomy similar to spiders
  • Have chelicerae, five pairs of walking legs, and long spikelike tail
  • Can grow to size to frying pan
  • Common along eastern US coast
subphylum chelicerata3
Subphylum Chelicerata
  • Spiders: largest group of arachnids
  • Capture food in a variety of ways: webs made of protein called silk, stalk and pounce on prey (turantula), lie in wait then grab
  • Feed on animals ranging from other arthropods to small birds
  • No jaws for chewing, must liquefy food to swallow it
subphylum chelicerata4
Subphylum Chelicerata
  • Once prey is caught, fangs inject paralyzing venom
  • Once prey is dead, spider injects digestive enzymes into the wounds
  • Spider sucks out tissues into a specialized pumping stomach
  • Food then moves to the rest of the digestive tract being further broken down by enzymes
subphylum chelicerata5
Subphylum Chelicerata
  • All spiders produce silk even if they don’t spin webs
  • Stronger than steel!
  • Used for webs, cocoons for eggs, wrappings for prey
  • Force liquid silk through spinnerets: organs that contain silk glands
  • As silk comes out it hardens into single strand
  • Spinning webs seems to be preprogrammed behavior
subphylum chelicerata6
Subphylum Chelicerata
  • Mites and Ticks: small and often parasitic
  • Specialized chelicerae for piercing tissue and sucking out blood
  • Pedipalps are often equipped with claws for holding on to host
  • Parasitize plants and animals
  • Can cause itching, painful rashes, and transmit diseases such as Rocky Mtn. spotted fever and Lyme disease
subphylum chelicerata7
Subphylum Chelicerata
  • Scorpions: widespread in warm areas including southern US
  • Pedipalps enlarged into claws
  • Long, segmented abdomen has a venomous stinger that can kill or paralyze prey
  • Chew up prey with chelicerae
subphylum uniramia
Subphylum Uniramia
  • Includes centipedes, millipedes, and insects
  • Response to stimuli
  • Compound eyes
  • Chemical receptors for taste and smell on mouthparts, antennae and legs
  • Sensory hairs to detect movement
  • Well-developed ears that hear above human range; found in strange places (behind legs in grasshoppers)
subphylum uniramia1
Subphylum Uniramia
  • Adaptations for feeding
  • 3 pairs of appendages for mouthparts including mandibles
  • Saliva contains digestive enzymes
  • Bee saliva help change nectar into honey
  • Glands in bee’s abdomen secrete wax, used to build beehives
subphylum uniramia2
Subphylum Uniramia
  • Movement and Flight
  • Legs used for jumping, walking, capturing and holding prey
  • Flying insects usually have two pairs of wings made of chitin
  • Flight has allowed for movement worldwide and wide variety of habitats
subphylum uniramia3
Subphylum Uniramia
  • Metamorphosis: process of changing shape and form
  • 2 types: incomplete and complete
  • Incomplete metamorphosis: gradual change with nymph immature forms
  • Nymphs lack sexual organs and wings and usually look similar to the adult form
  • Complete metamorphosis: dramatic change with larval stage and pupa
insect communication
Insect Communication
  • Use sound, visual, chemical, and other types of signals
  • Most communication is for mating
  • Sound: crickets chirping by rubbing legs together; cicadas buzz by vibrating special membranes on their abdomens
  • Visual cues: fireflies lighting up
  • Chemical signals: pheromones used for alarm or alerting other insects and for mating
insect societies
Insect Societies
  • Ants, bees, termites, and some of their relatives form complex associations called societies
  • Societies work together for the benefit of the whole group
  • Can have more than 7 million individuals
  • Castes: groups of individuals performing a certain job or role in the society (queen, workers, drones, etc)
classification for subphylum uniramia
Classification for Subphylum Uniramia
  • Centipedes: Class Chilopoda
  • Millipedes: Class Diplopoda
  • Insects: Class Insecta
    • Order Orthoptera: Crickets, grasshoppers, locusts
    • Order Isoptera: termites
    • Order Hymenoptera: bees, wasps, and ants
    • Order Lepidoptera: butterflies and moths
    • Order Diptera: true flies
    • Order Coleoptera: beetles
    • Order Hemiptera: true bugs
    • Order Anoplura: human louse (lice)
    • Order Odonata: dragonflies
    • Order Dictyoptera: cockroaches and mantids