Chapter 3: Audience. AP Language Ainara Manlutac , Iveth Ruiz, Gino Herrera Period 4. Creating an Argument. To argue effectively we must take into account the audience, specific situation we’re in, cultural factors and the historical moment. In short we need to “Argue within context”
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Chapter 3: Audience AP Language AinaraManlutac, Iveth Ruiz, Gino Herrera Period 4
Creating an Argument To argue effectively we must take into account the audience, specific situation we’re in, cultural factors and the historical moment. In short we need to “Argue within context” Three main contexts to consider as you construct an argument: • The Rhetorical Situation (who and where someone is making an argument) • Cultural context (how culture affects how we react to an argument) • Historical Context (Particular moment in which we’re arguing)
Rhetorical Situation: The writer or speaker needs to try to engage in an interaction with a particular audience about a particular subject in order to understand the audience’s connection to the subject to address the argument effectively. 1. Analyzing your Audience 2. Imagining Your Audience How would your argument differ?
Analyzing your Audience: • Rhetorical situation affects how the writer addresses and what is the audience’s response. • To understand the audience try to determine what you already know of your audience. These general assumptions can help you argue effectively. Examples include your audience’s: • Ethnic Background, experiences, knowledge, beliefs, traditions, • preferences, economic status, etc. Imagining a skeptical audience will enable you to anticipate and respond to opposing views and objections to your position and empower you argument.
Imagining Your Audience: • The audience can be general but a more specific audience can be targeted directly by explicitly excluding specific kinds of readers • A sense of purpose shapes an author’s sense of audience • Audience in argument is also influenced by the specific circumstances in which the argument is being made • Ex: position, tone, diction, attitude • It is crucial for the writer to make the best judgment about how to address the audience and the situation • An effective argument is usually effective only within a specific rhetorical situation-what works in one might not work in another.
Understanding Culture What is it? • Sense of identity • A setting in which we live and interact with each other • Shapes how we view the world and ourselves as individuals in relation to others • It’s complex-similar cultural backgrounds doesn’t mean identical culture • Affects the way a person reads and writes an argument http://www.embrace-diversity.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/diversity4.jpg
Considering Culture in Argument • Culture affects how we react to argument • ex) Harry Araton’s essay about a double tennis team made up of a Jewish and a Muslim player • ex) interracial couple in Target advertisement • Culture affects how a person engage in argumentation • ex) In Japan, people don’t directly assert their desires or beliefs, but instead make statements that imply what they are thinking http://31.media.tumblr.com/cb261cfd4a4787eeff880ffb95679fd3/tumblr_mtweyh0FgE1sxsg1xo1_500.jpg
Considering Gender Another way to think about culture-it encompasses important aspects of our identity such as gender, sexual orientation, and age • Risky to generalize about such things-many arguments are directed toward audiences without regard to gender, sexual orientation, age, or other such factors • Be sensitive to how these factors influence the way an audience reacts to an argument • ex) Dove’s “Real Beauty” advertisement • A topic can have different implications for different audiences • ex) An argument about abortion means something different to a woman than a man http://blogs.uoregon.edu/j350dove/files/2013/06/baaf3fa6-1ed6-4cb8-ae44-c988328e8a41-10iwdqn.jpg
Considering Age • The age of an intended audience can influence how a writer makes an argument • In some cases an argument is intended for readers of a specific age and the writer’s language, strategies, and topics will be shaped accordingly. • Ex) Toy’s ‘R Us advertisement • The effect of age of intended readers is more subtle (old readers observing teen behavior).
Considering Sexual Orientation • It is challenging to write about sexual orientation because it’s problematic for writers to assume if all members of the audience are homosexual or not. • Someone who is gay may associate “family values” or “our children” with the hetero community to which they don’t belong. • Anyone can create a family, and increasing same-gender couples adopting children are on the rise. • The phrase “family values” is problematic because it’s used in rhetoric to limit the rights of minorities (same-gender couples).
Pop Quiz! • *describe the rhetorical situation, cultural and historical context in the image*