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Chapter 4

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  1. Chapter 4 Analyzing the Audience

  2. Analyzing the Audience Audience Analysis Methods of Audience Analysis Analysis of the Situation The Uniqueness of the Classroom Audience Adapting to Your Audience Listening and Public Speaking Ethics and the Audience Next Steps in Audience Analysis

  3. Audience Analysis Audience analysis – discovering as much as possible about an audience to improve communication Conventionalwisdom – popular opinions of the time about issues, styles, topics, trends, and social mores, the customary set of understandings of what is true or right Reflect broad pattern of thinking that may affect behavior Can also be gross oversimplification of opinions

  4. Audience Analysis Demographics – includes gender composition, age, ethnicity, economic status, occupation, and education levels of an audience Gender composition important for some topics Maturity changes people’s preferences

  5. Audience Analysis Demographics Ethnicity – people who are united through “language, historical origins, nation-state, or cultural system” Co-cultures – groups that are similar to the larger culture but are distinguished by background, beliefs, and behaviors Economic status Wealthy may be less open to new ideas Occupation Language is affected by audience’s occupations

  6. Audience Analysis Demographics Education People with more education tend to read and write more, are usually better acquainted with the news, are more likely to have traveled, and are more likely to have higher incomes Worldview – common concept of reality shared by particular group of people Physical characteristics Adjust language to perceived physical characteristics, but avoid stereotyping

  7. Methods of Audience Analysis Observation – watching and listening Reveals most about the audience before and during a presentation Can reveal audience age, ethnic origin, and gender Informants Informant can help analyze your audience Can tell which topics are appropriate, how many people will be there, and how long you should speak

  8. Methods of Audience Analysis Interviews – inquiries about the audience directed at an audience member Occur in advance of the speech They take time, but they can aid greatly in learning more about your audience

  9. Methods of Audience Analysis Questionnaires – surveys of audience opinions Take more time to plan than to execute Three types of questions: Open-ended questions – invite an explanation Yes or no questions – force a decision Degree questions – ask to what extent a respondent agrees or disagrees with a question

  10. Analysis of the Situation Five factors: Size of the audience Environmental factors Speaking occasion Time Importance of the occasion

  11. Analysis of the Situation Size of audience Larger audiences usually call for formality in tone and language Determines the amount of interaction you have with the audience Determines need for special visual aids, microphones, or podiums

  12. Analysis of the Situation Environment Factors to consider include: An unfortunate sound system Poor lighting Too warm or too cold Absence of a podium or lectern A stationary microphone Lack of audiovisual equipment

  13. Analysis of the Situation Occasion Audience expects speaker to follow unstated assumptions about the occasion Upbeat and funny at an after-dinner speech Serious at a ribbon cutting Energetic and enthusiastic at a pep rally Prudent and factual in a court of law

  14. Analysis of the Situation Time Time of day Early morning audiences are fresh but not ready for serious topics Speeches after lunch/dinner must be particularly stimulating Length of time that you speak People relieved when a presentation is shorter The block of time allotted Audiences insulted by a 5-minute speech if they expected a 30-minute presentation

  15. Analysis of the Situation Importance Significance of situation dictates speaker’s seriousness, content, and approach An occasion of lesser importance treated differently than one of great importance Occasions of greater importance should not be treated lightly

  16. Figure 4.1: Sample Questionnaire

  17. The Uniqueness of the Classroom Audience Captive audience Relatively small and constant Speeches tend to be short Includes the professor, who is responsible for grading and evaluating each presentation Provides opportunity to listen to every member of the audience

  18. Table 4.1: Uniqueness of the Classroom Audience

  19. Adapting to Your Audience Audienceadaptation – using analysis to make the message appropriate for the audience In an informative speech, means translating ideas In a persuasive speech this means adjusting message to the knowledge level of listeners and their position on the issue

  20. Listening and Public Speaking The importance of listening Develops citizenship and civility Learn more by listening than by talking You should spend most of your time listening

  21. Listening and Public Speaking Becoming a better listener Suspend judgment about the speaker Focus on speaker as a source of information Concentrate attention on the speaker Listen to the entire message Focus on shared values and experiences

  22. Listening and Public Speaking Becoming a better listener Focus on main ideas Recall that words are arbitrary Focus on both intent and content Be aware of your listening intensity Remove or ignore physical distractions

  23. Listening and Public Speaking Evaluate your listening skills Did you: Find something to arouse interest? Find the subject interesting? Listen to the message rather than to how it was delivered? Listen with a purpose? Listen for major ideas and relationships among various points?

  24. Listening and Public Speaking Evaluate your listening skills (continued) Did you: Sit in a place where you could hear the speaker and listen to the speech? Avoid or ignore distractions? Subordinate specific words to the total meaning of the content? Pay close attention Listen to all the speaker had to say before criticizing?

  25. Figure 4.2: Guidelines for Becoming a Better Listener

  26. Ethics and the Audience Audiences expect different levels of truthfulness in different situations A comedian is expected to exaggerate A priest, judge, and professor are expected to tell the truth The classroom speaker is expected to inform with honesty and persuade with reason You should have the audience’s best interests in mind

  27. Next Steps in Audience Analysis Audience analysis and adaptation continues as you prepare your presentation Audience analysis and adaptation makes you ready to make ethical and informed decisions on using your own experience, the Internet, and the library for research