Sustainable Development Zone (SDZ). A concept by Jaigopal Rao. This concept has received very positive responses from Shri. Thomas Isaac, shri. PVUnnikrishnan, shri. Vijayanand (IAS), Smt Jaya (IAS) in GOK. Shri. Nandan Nilekani –‘core of idea is very powerful’.
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A concept by Jaigopal Rao.
Analysis – present urbanization in India.
Cities/ townscapes bursting at seams with an unplanned mix of residential neighborhoods, commercial spaces, workshops, small and big industries etc.
poorly planned infrastructure facilities for water supply, waste disposal, power supply etc
Long commuting distances for a large population.
Resulting unplanned urban sprawl.
Multiplication of automobile users.
World over, these three are now considered the big three evils of urban development.
Electronics City Bangalore
330 acres in extent; over 60000 IT jobs.
Massive speculation in land prices all around.
Substantial influx of population. Hardly any infrastructure planning,
especially for roads, housing etc. to support this influx.
Affordable housing around scarce, resulting in daily plying of thousands of buses and cars for the working population… traffic snarls, pollution has become order of the day.
Poor people pushed to periphery, causing slums.
Typical urban magnet
Often involves large land acquisition, displacement etc. – real need for the extent is suspect.
Immediately sparks off speculation in land prices; land speculators are often the biggest beneficiaries of such projects.
Master plan of just the project area alone, partially or often totally ignores the overall infrastructure, ecological, social, economic impact of the project on the region.
Result – at times mis-informed, at times true and justified fear especially among those immediately affected, whether disadvantages brought in by such big projects are more than the advantages.
Typical urban magnets
Land price speculation is because of poor land use planning.
Water scarcity is because lakes, ponds, wells etc. got filled up, forests and mangroves destroyed again due to poor land use planning.
Lack of housing for EWS population near work place is again poor land use planning.
Long commuting time, urban sprawl, massive increase in traffic congestion, pollution etc. are direct results of poor land use planning.
Despite economic downturn, India has 7 to 8% growth and also receives massive capital inflow as remittances from abroad; if local governments do not have the right instruments to channelize these for infrastructure development, it is because of poor land use and finance planning.
A win–win solution
Makes use of established land use instruments like FAR, zoning, TDR etc
Improve infrastructure such as waste disposal, water supply, electricity etc
Caring to Economically Weaker Sections
Arrests speculation in Land Prices
Convenient for middle class
Preserves and enhances natural environment and built heritage
Advantageous for genuine investors
Comfortably embraces economic growth and absorbs ensuing migration
Acceptable to ethical among the business community
HDZ(High Density Zone):
ATypical 40 acre HDZ:
12,000 - 15,000 people staying.
5000 - 8000 people working. (may be IT or an industry or such other employment magnet )
All daily activities of at least 60% of the people in the core such as going to work, school, everyday essential services, recreation and cultural facilities within 500 m walking distance.
Mixed land use of residential, commercial and recreation spaces
High FAR of 4 or more
Coverage of around 30%, interspersed with large open spaces
Inside compact core, only bicycle and pedestrian movement
Ample parking facility will be provided in the periphery.
b) NDZ (No Development Zone):
Natural heritage features such as forests, wetlands, coastal areas, paddy fields, lakes etc. to be conserved as NDZ.
Built heritage areas also to be conserved as NDZ.
Owners of privately owned such areas to get compensation as development rights in HDZs by a concept of Transfer of Development Rights. (TDR) (or as simple compensation).
c) SIZ (Social Infrastructure Zone):
Comfortable space for accommodation, recreation, education etc of the EWS (Economically Weaker Sections) population near their work places.
Considering 15% of the population belonging to EWS, built up area of an average of 60 sq ft per person to be planned for, at 2 FAR.
Other social infrastructure facilities like anganwadis and PHCs, markets, slaughter houses, crematoriums, women’s development zones etc. especially for the EWS to be provided.
d) Service Areas:
Water tanks, pump houses and space for main lines of water supply.
Roads, foot paths, street lights and storm water lines.
Transformers, power stations, space for HT lines and buffer zones.
Decentralized solid waste, sewage and liquid waste treatment / management areas and buffer zones.
Buffer zone for hazardous chemical storage and transfer.
In water scarce regions, space for rain water harvesting reservoir to meet at least peak summer short fall.
Parks, playgrounds and community open spaces.
Public spaces such as community halls, markets, bus stand, rail or mass transit stations etc.
e) LDZ (Low Density Zone):
Areas other than HDZ of the SDZ to be Low Density Zones with 1 FAR or
Less, and coverage of 30%. These will have
Villas with gardens and open spaces.
Plant nurseries, automobile workshops and other small industries and
enterprises which need land.
These areas will have buildings predominantly with local materials,
land with maximum green cover,
will harvest rain water fully for own requirement,
treat ones own solid and liquid wastes in own premises etc.
Perhaps can have own renewable energy systems
tax relaxations and other incentives to encourage the above.
Feeder buses within an SDZ to link all parts of SDZ to the HDZ from where mass transit lines or trunk buses to take commuters to more distant places. Electronic road pricing (ERP) will regulate automobiles within SDZs.
Concept of SDZ mooted as alternative to SEZ
Improvement of Infrastructure
Cross subsidises housing and facilities for EWS of society.
Conservation of natural and built heritage.
Funding, investment and economic development.
Decentralisation of economy
Arrests speculation in land prices
Improves urban planning as it arrests urban sprawl, automobile dependence and commuting distances.
Child friendly, disabled friendly, aged friendly, pollution free and healthy.
1.Absorbs the shock load of migration of people in urban areas.
2. Depending on expected density, HDZs can have varied FAR such as 4, 3, 2 etc.
3. Consolidating large parcels of land (40 to 50 acres for HDZ, perhaps 20 acres for water harvesting,10 acres for EWS etc, altogether 70 to 80 acres) at desired locations can be a hurdle if it is to be attempted from scratch.
Instead if SDZ are established around already existing large parcels of single owner land (private or government) then the process can be simpler.
SDZ clusters linked by Mass Transit Systems
SDZ clusters along Key Infrastructure Corridors
DELHI-MUMBAI INDUSTRIAL CORRIDOR
3,60,000 CRORE PROJECT
Hopefully we will give space for aspirations of
large buildings showing off glamour and glitter
in our HDZs.
Hopefully we will give space for the small and
the beautiful, which we hope will
be the predominant aspiration, in our LDZs.
Hopefully we will have good infrastructure
in our Service areas.
weaker sections through our SIZs.
Hopefully we will conserve mother nature through our NDZs.