SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Dr. Fani Cahyandito
STRUCTURE • INTRODUCTION • SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA • FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT • PROBLEM OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA
INTRODUCTION Traditional development issues such as economic stagnation, persistent poverty as well as newer challenges such as worsening environmental degradation and accelerating globalisation demand attention. One key approach that has received growing attention is based on the concept of sustainable development or ‘development which lasts’ (WCED, 1987). No universally acceptable practical definition of sustainable development exists as yet.
INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT
INTRODUCTION DEFINITION OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Source: Müller-Christ: Nachhaltiges Ressourcenmanagement, 2001
INTRODUCTION “Sustainable development is defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs” (WCED 1987) The fulfillment of recent generation needs without sacrificing the future generation needs: The natural resource exploitation in an efficient and wise manner, to maintain the environmental carrying capacity for supporting the development and human quality. Development is executed in well planned, rational,optimal,responsible and it gives a great concern on environmentalconservation.
INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Sustainable development has to fulfill three prerequisites: ECONOMIC ENVIRON-MENTAL SOCIAL
INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION ENVIRONMENTAL SOCIAL ECONOMIC
INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION The economy is geared mainly towards improving human welfare, primarily through increases in the consumption of goods and services. The environmental domain focuses on protection of the integrity and resilience of ecological systems. The social domain emphasises the enrichment of human relationships and achievement of individual and group aspirations. Recent work has sought to analyse these economic, social, and environmental dimensions in a balanced manner.
INTRODUCTION Sustainable development is also valuable in term of economy, moral and ecology. Moral responsibility, which is a responsibility to the future generation with managing natural resources efficiently. Ecological value: connected with human toleration to other creatures, means that increasing human welfare without endangered other creatures’ life. Thus it will keep the stability and integrity of the ecosystem.
SUSTAINABLE DEV. IN INDONESIA Indonesia is committed to sustainable development. Indonesia launched its National Agenda 21 which provides references to mainstream sustainable development principles into the National Development Planning. In 2000, Indonesia released the Sectoral Agenda 21 covering mining, energy, tourism, human settlements, and forestry.
SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN INDONESIA Some efforts have been made and regulations are being formulated to address the sustainable development, such as: Ratification of many bilateral and multilateral environmental agreements The Law No. 22/1999 on Regional Governance. The on-going process to establish the National Council for Sustainable Development (NCSD).
FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Swaminathan (2002) – sustainable development rests on four pillars which are: PRO-ENVIRONMENT PRO-POOR PRO-WOMEN PRO-LIVELIHOOD OPPORTUNITIES (JOB-LED) Using the four pillars also sets the stage to measure the progress of SD – since each of the pillar can be measured quantitatively.
FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 1. PRO-ENVIRONMENT Pro-environment i.e. the degree by which development activities impact on environment. “The lower degree of negative impacts and higher degree of the positive ones, the more pro-environment development is”
Kebakaran tangki minyak bumi di LNG Badak, Kalimantan Timur (Sumber:Tempo).
FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 2. PRO-POOR Pro-poor can be measured by the Human Development Index (HDI) or bythe Human Poverty Index (HPI). The HDI is a measure of achievement of the most basic human capabilities, i.e. life expectancy, educational attainment and income (UNDP, 1999).
FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT HPI is a measure of poverty indicating deprivation in four basic dimensions of human life: a long and healthy life % of people likely to die before the age of 60 knowledge % of people whose ability to read and write is far from adequate economic provisioning proportion of the population with disposable incomes of less than 50% of the medium social inclusion proportion of long term unemployed (12 months of more) “The lower the percentage of HPI, the lesser poverty prevails”
FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRO-POOR: HEALTH Between 1960-1999, infant mortality rate dropped from 159 to 48 per thousand live birth (BPS et al., 2001)
FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRO-POOR: HEALTH Life expectancy increased from 41 years in 1960 to 66 years in 1999 (BPS et al., 2001) 2000: 67.96 2001: 68.27 2002: 68.63 2003: 68.94 2004: 69.26 2005: 69.57 Source: CIA World Factbook
FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRO-POOR: HEALTH Another issue is the increasing cases of health problems, related to environmental pollution such respiratory tract infections due to air pollution in the cities and due to haze produced seasonally by forest and land fires.
FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (Kayu gelondongan selundupan eks MV. Kum Jin Gang yang ada di Basis TNI-AL, Surabaya, Jawa Timur. [Citrawijaya Lim; 20040331].) (Penduduk menanam benih di antara lahan hutan yang tersisa dari kebakaran. [TEMPO/ Junaini KS; 39c/056/89; 20000618])
FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRO-POOR: EDUCATION Indonesia has made significant progress in advancing education as indicated by increasing adult literacy rate from 39% in 1960 to 88% in 1999 (BPS et al., 2001). The number of illiterate (> 15 years old) in 2003 is 10.2 % (15.4 million). The population above 10 years old who passed junior high school, i.e. from 32.2% in 1999 to 33.6% in 2000. This is an increase of 0.1 – 0.6% compared to 1999 (SUSENAS, 2000).
Adult Literacy Rate in Indonesia (The proportion of People over the Age of 15 who can Read and Write) 100 86 88 90 81 80 70 60 50 39 40 30 20 10 0 1960 1990 1995 1999 Source: based on BPS et.al., 2001 FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRO-POOR: EDUCATION 2002: 87.9 (Source: UNDP), 2000-2004: 98
FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRO-POOR: EDUCATION Despite the achievement, there are several problems in education sector: The dropout rate at primary and secondary levels was 3.4%. 19.3% of all students would not be able to continue their education to a higher level (SUSENAS, 2000). Teaching quality is relatively low.
FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRO-POOR: ECONOMIC CONDITION Per-capita income 1996: US $ 1,153/cap/year – lower middle income (~ Rp. 10.953.500). During the economic crisis 1998: below US$ 750/cap/year – low income (~ Rp. 7.125.000). 2003: US $ 1000/cap/year – lower middle income (~ Rp. 9.500.000). During the crisis, the gap between the rich and the poor widened, due to unemployment, lack of access to adequate food and basic social services, inequities in distribution of wealth and access to resources.
FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT POVERTY 24.2% of the Indonesian population or 49.5 million people were living in poverty in 1998; Reduced to about 38.4 million people or 18.2% of the population in 2000. And in 2004 reduced to about 36.1 million or 16.7% of the total population. Problem: increasing unemployment rate. The unemployment following the crisis was 5.5% in 1998 which increased to 9.4% in 2004.
FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT POVERTY Indonesia is facing housing shortage in terms of both quantity and quality, particularly for the urban poor. In 2000, about 25% household in Indonesia live in house below the ideal size (WHO) of 10 m2 per person.
FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT Position of Human Development Index in 2004 from 175 countries: Indonesia - # 111 Malaysia - # 59 Thailand - # 76 Philippines - # 83 Vietnam - # 112 UNDP says in 2006 #108 among 177 countries.
FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 3. PRO-WOMEN Pro-women or pro-gender can be measured by the gender related development index (GDI) and the gender empowerment measure (GEM). GDI is the same as HDI, but adjusted for gender inequality. The closer the GDI value is to HDI, the less gender disparity exists. GEM measures gender inequality in key areas of economic and political participation and decision making (UNDP, 1999).
FOUR PILLARS OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT 4. PRO-LIVELIHOOD Pro-livelihood opportunities can be shown by the conventional method of the number of jobs created per investment. Experience has shown that only those get measured, get done. The four pillars have the dual role of guiding principle and driving force to get sustainable development beyond rhetoric and to get into the realm of implementation.
PROBLEM IN IMPLEMENTING SUST. DEV. IN INDONESIA • Like many other countries, particularly developing countries, Indonesia faces many constraints in the implementation of Agenda 21 and national sustainable development (national and international constraints), such as: • The lack of clean, accountable, representative & democratic governance. • Inadequate public consultation coupled with emphasis on boosting economic growth has resulted in policies that often do not support sustainable development.
PROBLEM IN IMPLEMENTING SUST. DEV. IN INDONESIA • There is an almost general lack of awareness about Agenda 21 and sustainable development among government officials, cooperation even academician. • Inadequate political will, institutional capacity and law enforcement • Inadequate provision for the involvement of major group • Inadequate financial, technological and human resources • etc.
INDONESIA Total population: 219,883,000 GDP per capita (Intl $, 2002): 3,390 Life expectancy at birth m/f (years): 65.0/68.0 Healthy life expectancy at birth m/f (years, 2002): 57.4/58.9 Child mortality m/f (per 1000): 45/37 Adult mortality m/f (per 1000): 241/204 Total health expenditure per capita (Intl $, 2002): 110 Total health expenditure as % of GDP (2002): 3.2