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Sustainable Development

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  1. Sustainable Development Dr. M. Musaddiq Professor and Head, Dept. of Microbiology & Biotechnology Shri Shivaji College, Akola(Maharashtra)

  2. Pollution 1. Pollution is gift of Civilization and Urbanization 2. The rapid growing population and economic development are leading to the environmental degradation in India 3. The main reason is the uncontrolled growth of Urbanization and industrialization

  3. Major Issues are: • Forest and agricultural land degradation • Resource depletion (Water, minerals, forest, sand, rocks etc.) • Environmental degradation • Public health • Loss of Biodiversity • Loss of resilience in ecosystems, • livelihood Security for poor.

  4. Reasons It is estimated that the India’s population will increase to 1.26 billion by the year 2016. than India will become the first most populous country in the world and China will be the second in 2050. India having 18% of the world's population on 2.45 of world’s total area has greatly increased the pressure on its natural resources. Water shortages, soil exhaustion and erosion, deforestation, air and water pollution Leads to

  5. Water pollution Out of India’s 3,119 towns and cities, just 209 have partial treatment facilities (WHO, 1992)

  6. Water pollution Out of India’s 3,119 towns and cities, just 209 have partial treatment facilities (WHO, 1992)

  7. Hazards of Water Pollution • Biological Hazards: Viral diseases: Hepatitis, Polio etc, Bacterial Diseases: Cholera, Typhoid, Paratyphoid,1,000 Indian children die of diarrheal sicknesses every day. Helmintheic: Round worm, Hock worm, Whip worm Host transmitting Diseases: Cyclops, etc • Chemical Hazards: Rapid Poisoning: Deaths of animal after drinking the polluted water. Slow poisoning: Due to be in contact for a long time with sub-lethal exposure leads to ulcer, tumer formation, or even cancer

  8. Air Pollution Old diesel engines and vehicles and Industries. A forestation and more and more emmision of CO2

  9. Noise pollution The supreme court of India gave a significant verdict on noise pollution in 2005. Unnecessary horning of vehicles, Use of loudspeakers for political purposes.

  10. Land Pollution Land pollution in India is due to pesticides and fertilizers as well as corrosion

  11. Sustainable Development • Social • Economic • Environment

  12. Scheme of sustainable Development at the confluence of three constituent parts Pollution control and Remediation Resource Conservation and Management Planning Land Use and Infrastructure.

  13. Sustainable Development Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that theses needs can be met not only in the present, but also for future generations. “Meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”

  14. Development Environment

  15. Wastewater Treatment Renewable Energy Sources Solid waste Disposal Control of Eutrophication Pollution control Sustainable Development Prospective Town Planning Forest Conservation Environmental Laws Xenobiotics Degradation Environmental Education Ecofrindly Technologies Land fill

  16. Prospective Town-Planning • Proper wide roads • Avoiding windings of roads • Avoiding encroachments • Industrial zoning • Open reserve lands • Places demarcated for gardens • Construction of lakes • Industrial sectors • Under ground drainages • Need for ideal city.

  17. The use of biological agent (or their components) to convert diffuse and inconvenient to use sources of energy e.g. biomass and sunlight, into more- energy dense and convenient to use fuel e.g. methane, ethanol, butane, biodiesel and hydrogen, carbon dioxide constitutes fuel biotechnology.

  18. Energy consumption in developing and developed countries

  19. Advantages of Biofuels • Most of the Biofuels are derived from biomass, which is renewable, low cost and locally available entailing little or no commitment of foreign exchange. • In general, they lead to relatively low CO2 omission than fossil fuels. • They do not contribute to environmental pollution due to gases like SO2 etc. • The substrate is often a waste material like municipal waste, etc.

  20. Some energy crops and the predominant mode of their utilization

  21. Non-conventional Renewable energy sources • Solar energy • Tidal energy • Wood • Sugar and starch crops • Hydrocarbon producing crops • Biomass • Biogas • Bioethanol • Bioethanol • Biobutinol • Biodiesel • From lipids • From hydrocarbons • Biohydrogen • Anaerobic Bacteria • Photosynthetic algae

  22. Solid wastes • It is the solid material which is of no use to us therefore it is to be disposed off. It includes: • Garbage (food wastes) • Rubbish (paper, Plastic, wood, metal, thrown-away containers, glass) • demolition products (bricks, masonry, pipes) • Sewage treated residues (sludge and sand) • Dead animals, manure and other discarded material (with night soil) • Production of solid waste is Per Capita 0.25 to 2.5 Kg per day

  23. Health Hazards due to Improper disposal It decomposes and favours fly breeding It attracts rodents and vertebrates The pathogens which may be present in the solid wastes may be convey back to man’s food through flies and dust There is a possibility of water and soil pollution and Heaps of refuse present an unsightly appearce and nuisance from bad odours

  24. Refuse that is collected by the street cleaning or scavenging is called ‘street refuse’ Refuse that is collected from market ids called ‘market refuse’ Refuse that is collected from stable is called ‘stable litter’ ‘Industrial refuse’ comprises of a wide variety of wastes ranging from very inert substances to highly toxic substances ‘Domestic refuse’ consists of rubbish and garbage, it gets putrefied and leads to other problems. Sources of Refuse

  25. Composition of Solid waste

  26. Steps involved are: Storage Collection Transportation Disposal Treatment and Disposal

  27. The first step is proper storage of the solid waste The capacity of the bin depends on the number of family members It should be properly covered The public bins should be placed on a platform Storage

  28. According to Environmental Hygiene Committee (1949) the municipalities and local bodies should collect the waste It is to collected through the covered trucks Collection

  29. Methods of Disposal • Dumping • Controlled Tipping or Sanitary land-fills • Ingeneration • Composting • Manure Pits • Burial

  30. Indian Scenario 􀂃 In 1999, the Indian Ministry of Environment and Forests banned the use and sale of plastic bags less than 20-microns thick. 􀂃 The Municipal Solid Wastes (management & handling) Rules 2000, mandate recycling of dry waste & waste segregation at source.

  31. Formulation of Action –Plan for Management of Municipal Solid Waste • Implementation of Municipal Solid Waste (Management & Handling ) Rules, 2000 • Since it was slow because of lack of founds and management guidelines • Ministry of Environment and forest (MoEF) has stressed on formulation of the time bound action plan for municipal solid waste management (MSWM) for metro cities and state capitals to begin with.

  32. Infectious Hospital Wastes

  33. Hospital Waste Management • The wastes produced in the course of health-care activities carries as higher potential for infection and injury than any other type of waste. Therefore it is essential to have safe and reliable method for its handling. Inadequate and inappropriate handling of health care waste may have serious public health consequences and a significant impact of the environment.

  34. Composition of Bio-Medical Wastes

  35. Waste-water Management

  36. Waste water Management • Approximately 80% of the water supplied for domestic use passes as wastewater or sewage. • It is mandatory to bring about the waste water treatment so that it don’t pollute the atmosphere. • It will solve the water shortage problems

  37. Sewage • Typical Domestic Sewage Consists of: • Water : 99-99.9% • Suspended Solids : 0.02- 0.3% • Soluble organic compounds • Soluble Inorganic compounds • Colloidal Substances • Microorganisms • Parasites

  38. Wastewater treatment and Disposal • Primary treatment( Physical) • Screening • Mixing • Flocculation • Sedimentation • Filtration • Micro-screening

  39. Waste water treatment Results in Pure Drinking water • Secondary Treatment • Aerobic treatment • Anaerobic • Final treatment • Use of chlorine • Ozone • Other disinfectants