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SYSTEM

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  1. SDARM-UK Public Health ANATOMY – PHYSIOLOGY – PATHOLOGIES THECARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM III

  2. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM

  3. REFERENCES Ellen G. White Lancraft Tortora & Derrickson

  4. CONTENTS • PATHOLOGIES • High Blood Pressure • High Cholesterol • Diabetes • Vascular Disease (Peripheral Artery Disease - PAD) • Atheroma • Arteriosclerosis • Embolism • Varicose veins • Angina • Myocardium Infarction – Heart Attack • Stroke • Blood Diseases • Shock

  5. Causes of Diseases of the Blood and Circulation: “Those who are not in health have impurities of the blood. A bad circulation leaves the blood to become impure, induces congestion of the brain and lungs, and causes diseases of the heart, the liver, and the lungs. By interrupting the circulation of the blood, the entire system is deranged. The chief if not the only reason why many become invalids is that the blood does not circulate freely, and the changes in the vital fluid which are necessary to life and health do not take place.” Healthful living p.180

  6. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE HYPERTENSION

  7. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE HYPERTENSION DEFINITION: HBP or HYPERTENSION is when the pressure of the blood flow through the arteries, veins and capillaries is higher than it should be.

  8. PATHOLOGIES The World Health Report (2002) found that 50% of all Coronary Heart Diseases cases were linked with HBP and 75% of strokes. According to the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial,Men with Diastolic pressure over 92mmg have double the risk dying from CAD. (Kannel WB et al, Am Heart J 112:825-883,1986) OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE HYPERTENSION STATISTICS:

  9. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE HYPERTENSION WHY Should You Be CONCERNED ?

  10. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE HYPERTENSION COMPLICATIONS CAN LEAD TO: • Retinal bleeding • Cerebral oedema • Renal disease • Cracks in the blood vessel walls:leading to Plaque formation • Blood vessels: Aneurysm WHY Should You Be CONCERNED ?

  11. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE HYPERTENSION • Heart Diseases: • Left ventricle failure – lung congestion (Blood pools in lungs as it has nowhere to go back to) • Right ventricle failure – oedema (Blood pools in tissues/body as it has nowhere to go back to) 6. Brain Damage:Stroke WHY Should You Be CONCERNED ?

  12. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE HYPERTENSION SYMPTOMS: Asymptomatic Headache Difficulty to breath Blurred vision Rapid pulse Felling of dizziness Overweight

  13. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE HYPERTENSION CAUSE: Inherited Tendency Obesity Diet (salt, fat) Excessive alcohol intake Cigarette smoking Lack of Exercise

  14. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE HYPERTENSION TREATMENT: Eat a healthy Diet – salt to minimum 2. Loose weight 3. Relax 4. Garlic / Cucumber juice / Vitamin C 5. Take anti-HBP medication / 6. Undergo a naturopathic treatment with a professional practitioner

  15. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM VIDEO Video 1. understanding HBP

  16. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM VIDEO Video 2. Effects of HBP on your body

  17. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM LDL – CHOLESTEROL BAD CHOLESTEROL

  18. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM LDL - CHOLESTEROL BAD CHOLESTEROL DEFINITION: CHOLESTEROL is a fatty, wax-like substance found naturally in all body cells. It is used to build cells, build hormones and aids in digestion.

  19. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM LDL - CHOLESTEROL BAD CHOLESTEROL DEFINITION: ...Because of its composition it doesn't dissolve very well in the blood. So… cholesterol is transported around the body in the form of lipoproteins(which are small protein "molecular-suitcases“ ) synthesised by the liver.

  20. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM LDL - CHOLESTEROL BAD CHOLESTEROL DEFINITION: There are two types of Cholesterol: HDL (high-density lipoprotein) and LDL (low-density lipoprotein).

  21. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM LDL - CHOLESTEROL BAD CHOLESTEROL DEFINITION: Your liver can manufacture all the cholesterol you need. However, it is also found in animal foods (meat, egg, dairy products) and hydrogenated oils.

  22. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM LDL - CHOLESTEROL BAD CHOLESTEROL DEFINITION: 1 egg = 275mg Partially hydrogenated Partially hydrogenated

  23. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM LDL - CHOLESTEROL BAD CHOLESTEROL DEFINITION: HDL collects cholesterol from the body's tissues, and brings it back to the liver. Sometimes referred to as the "good cholesterol" lipoprotein. ON THE OTHER HAND...

  24. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM LDL - CHOLESTEROL BAD CHOLESTEROL DEFINITION: ... the LDL carries cholesterol from the liver to cells of the body. Sometimes referred to as the "bad cholesterol" lipoprotein. This is the kind that can deposit in the arteries.

  25. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM LDL - CHOLESTEROL BAD CHOLESTEROL WHY Should You Be CONCERNED ?

  26. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM LDL - CHOLESTEROL BAD CHOLESTEROL COMPLICATIONS CAN LEAD TO: • Plaque formation within vessel walls • Atheroma • Atherosclerosis • Heart Attack / Heart Diseases • Stroke: WHY Should You Be CONCERNED ?

  27. PATHOLOGIES LDL - CHOLESTEROL BAD CHOLESTEROL SYMPTOMS: Asymptomatic Warn: A person can be very skinny and still present with High Cholesterol.

  28. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM LDL - CHOLESTEROL BAD CHOLESTEROL CAUSE: Fatty Diet Be particularly careful with meat and eggs! 2. Foods containing Hydrogenated fat 3. Stress

  29. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM LDL - CHOLESTEROL BAD CHOLESTEROL TREATMENT: Eat a Diet free from fat Garlic Herbs Sunlight Charcoal Exercise Consult a professional naturopathic nutritionist for a healthy diet option

  30. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM VIDEO Video 3. understanding CHOLESTEROL

  31. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM ATHEROMA

  32. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM ATHEROMA DEFINITION: Is a build-up of ATHEROMATUS PLAQUE (which is cholesterol calcifications + other wastes) in the artery walls.

  33. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM ATHEROMA WHY Should You Be CONCERNED ?

  34. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM ATHEROMA COMPLICATIONS CAN LEAD TO: • Adds to Atherosclerotic complications • May lead to embolus or clot formation within the CVS • Aneurysm development • Partial/completearterialblockage WHY Should You Be CONCERNED ?

  35. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM ATHEROMA COMPLICATIONS CAN LEAD TO: • Angina Pectoralis • (ischaemic pain in the heart) • Intermittent Claudication • (ischaemic pain in the lower limbs) WHY Should You Be CONCERNED ?

  36. PATHOLOGIES ATHEROMA SYMPTOMS: Pain in the heart (ANGINA) 2. Pain in the Lower Limbs (INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION)

  37. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM ATHEROMA CAUSE: • Hereditary • Gender • Age • Hypertension • Diabetes Mellitus • Obesity • Smoking • Stress • Sedentary lifestyle • Diet • Excessive alcohol

  38. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM ATHEROMA TREATMENT: Vitamin C Eat a Diet free from fat Garlic / Herbs / Sun light / Charcoal Exercise 4. Consult a professional naturopathic nutritionist for a healthy diet option

  39. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM VIDEO Video 4. ATHEROMA in 60 seconds

  40. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HEART ATTACK MYOCARDIO INFARCTION

  41. PATHOLOGIES 2010 - Total MortalityCollectively, Cardiovascular Disease is the UK's biggest killer, causing more than a third (36%) of all deaths in the UK, accounting for over 117,000 deaths in the UK each year. ... OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HEART ATTACK MYOCARDIO INFARCTION STATISTICS: ...Death rates for CHD have been falling rapidly in the UK since the late 1970s. Despite this, death rates from CHD in the UK are still amongst the highest in Western Europe. ...

  42. PATHOLOGIES Globally,cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death and projected to remain so. The main forms of CVD are Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) & Stroke. OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HEART ATTACK MYOCARDIO INFARCTION STATISTICS:

  43. PATHOLOGIES 1 in 5 men and 1 in 6 women die from heart disease, that’s around 101,000 deaths in the UK each year; over 275 every day.CHD is responsible for almost 9x more deaths in women than breast cancer. Someone in the UK has a heart attack every two minutes. In around 30% of heart attacks, the victim dies.Stroke causes over 57,000 deaths in the UK each year. OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HEART ATTACK MYOCARDIO INFARCTION STATISTICS:

  44. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HEART ATTACK MYOCARDIO INFARCTION WHY Should You Be CONCERNED ?

  45. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HEART ATTACK MYOCARDIO INFARCTION WHY Should You Be CONCERNED ?

  46. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HEART ATTACK MYOCARDIO INFARCTION COMPLICATIONS CAN LEAD TO: • Sudden, immediate DEATH • Permanent Damage to the heart – CHRONIC HEART FAILURE WHY Should You Be CONCERNED ?

  47. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM VIDEO Video 5. Myocardium Infarction: Understanding Disease

  48. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HEART ATTACK MYOCARDIO INFARCTION DEFINITION: INFARCTION: Death of tissue – Loss of blood supply to area; Occlusion / Complete blockage of the blood supply to the heart, resulting in hypoxia then tissue necrosis

  49. PATHOLOGIES HEART ATTACK MYOCARDIO INFARCTION SYMPTOMS: Severe Chest Pain; Can extend to left arm and jaw; (pain does not improve on rest) 2. Dyspnoea (SOB) 3. Syncope 4. Fatigue 5. Pale / Clammy Skin 6. Feeling of impending doom

  50. PATHOLOGIES OF THE CARDIOVASCULARSYSTEM HEART ATTACK MYOCARDIO INFARCTION CAUSE: Atherosclerosis 2. Embolism