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User-Centred Design: Design Principles (lecture-4). Prof. Dr. Matthias Rauterberg Faculty Industrial Design Technical University of Eindhoven [email protected] The first most important invariant. horizon the horizon is always lighter than the ground ground

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User centred design design principles lecture 4

User-Centred Design:Design Principles(lecture-4)

Prof. Dr. Matthias Rauterberg

Faculty Industrial Design

Technical University of Eindhoven

[email protected]

The first most important invariant
The first most important invariant

  • horizon

    • the horizon is always lighter than the ground

  • ground

    • the ground is always darker than the horizon

The second most important invariant
The second most important invariant

  • The Top

    • All good, strong and important things are at the top (e.g., God in heaven, the king, the boss, etc.).

  • The Bottom

    • All small, weak and unimportant things are at the bottom line.

Limits of the working memory
Limits of the Working Memory

  • working memory

    • remember time < 5 sec

    • about 5-9 chunks

    • masking

    • interferences

  • long-term memory

    • no capacity limits

The difference between internal and external memory
The Difference between Internal and External Memory

  • the mental model of the user about the external world is always incomplete

  • all necessary information which is not in the internal memory must be provided by the environment (the “external memory”)

The concept of natural mappings
The Concept of Natural Mappings

  • Definition [see Norman, D., 1988, p. 75ff]:

    • A design solution based on a natural mappings reduces the need for additional explanatory information in memory!

    • Natural mappings guarantee a minimum number of cognitive transformation steps.

    • If a design depends upon labels, it may be faulty. Labels are important and often necessary, but the appropriate use of natural mappings can minimize the need for them. Wherever labels seem necessary, consider another design!

Design of light switch panels 1
Design of Light Switch Panels (1)

  • Problem:

    • no direct mapping between switches and corresponding lamps

Corrective design 1
Corrective Design (1)

  • Problem:

    • sliding door can damage the open petrol flap

Corrective design 2
Corrective Design (2)

  • Solution:

    • extra bar to lock the sliding door

Design of shower faucets
Design of Shower Faucets

  • Natural mapping:

    • hot water left sideor RED

    • cold water right sideor BLUE

  • Un-natural mapping:

    • something else(see figure)

Double design
Double Design

  • Water-tap with

    • normal screw caps

  • plus

    • infrared sensor for automatic opening

The most important design principle
The most important design principle

  • Perception Space

    • The physical space where the user’s attention is.

  • Action Space

    • The physical space where the user acts in.

  • Design Principle:

    • perception space and action space must coincide!

Interactive Directness: the desktop example

Pull down menus

Pull down menus


action space

perception space

Head up displays in cars
Head-up Displays in Cars

  • More information and less distractionInformation on the state of the road, on the speed of the vehicle in front (supplied by the intelligent cruise control), on obstacles lying around the next bend in the road identified by the remote detection system, or direction arrows sent by the driver guidance system... drivers will be receiving more and more information from "intelligent" vehicle systems. Although the information is intended to enhance safe driving, there is a danger that an abundance of information may produce the opposite effect if driver glance-away time has to increase in order to apprehend the data.

Electronic performance support system
Electronic Performance Support System

  • Food processing plant worker with a first-generation prototype wearable computer.

  • Possible applications include support for quality control data collection or assistance with environmental auditing.

  • This system gives its users the information the users need to perform a task as they actually perform the task.

Airline applications
Airline Applications

  • This remarkable ultra-lightweight computer, worn as a belt, delivers maximum information to users with a minimum of work.

  • Designed for individuals who demand mobility, this computer offers voice control and heads up display for complete, hands-free operation.

  • Users can enter or retrieve information while going about their jobs, instead of constantly returning to the shop area to check a stationary computer, or stopping work to punch keys.

Interlacing display and manipulation spaces
Interlacing display and manipulation spaces

  • Exercise-4:

    • Design a user interface for a computer system with some of the following components:

      • input devices: joystick, graphic tablet with pen, keyboard, mouse, video camera, touch screen

      • ouput devices: monitor, video projector

      • other components: semitransparent mirrors

Two design principles for natural user interfaces (NUIs):

1. design principle

No technical equipment inside to body space of the user!

2. design principle

Perception space and action space must coincide!

The virtual workbench
The Virtual Workbench

The KOSIMA project

at the TU Aachen







virtual chips

real chip

NEW button

NUI (1): The Digital Playing Desk


Cell Line Chart for "playing time"

Grouping Variable(s): Interface type


Error Bars: ± 1 Standard Deviation(s)





Cell Mean for time of user (s)
















Digital Playing Desk: Playing time per game

user win

Cell Line Chart for "winning chance"

Grouping Variable(s): Interface type

Error Bars: ± 1 Standard Deviation(s)


computer win











Digital Playing Desk: winning chance per dialog technique

Build it an integrative design tool
BUILD-IT: an integrative design tool

  • design team with different domain knowledge

  • unconstrained social interaction

  • integration of form and content

  • intuitive interaction style

Actual research goals
Actual research goals...

  • hand-written input

  • speech input

  • two-handed interaction

  • new methods and concepts for integrative design