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Journal # 18. Preamble – an introduction to a formal document that explains the document’s purpose Tyranny – oppressive power exerted by a government or ruler Endowed – provided Despotism – unlimited power Arbitrary – not based upon law. The Patriots Gain New Hope. 6.4.

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journal 18
Journal #18
  • Preamble – an introduction to a formal document that explains the document’s purpose
  • Tyranny – oppressive power exerted by a government or ruler
  • Endowed – provided
  • Despotism – unlimited power
  • Arbitrary – not based upon law
bonus questions
Bonus Questions
  • What advantages did the British have at the beginning of the Revolution?
  • What advantages did the Patriots have?
  • How did the Long Rifle compare to the Muskets used during the American Revolution
  • How did women help the Patriots during the Revolution?
  • How did the early battles at Quebec and New York go for the Patriots?
review notes from last time
Review: Notes from Last Time
  • The British had just captured New York, forcing the Patriots to retreat
  • Many Patriots were taken captive
  • Many people feared that the war would soon be over
in new jersey
In New Jersey
  • General Washington’s troops were camped in New Jersey in 1776
  • General Howe (British) keeps most of his troops in New York, and sends Hessians (German mercenaries) into New Jersey
  • Meanwhile, Washington was gathering reinforcements and preparing an attack
  • The Patriots were still in a crisis, Thomas Paine wrote his Crisis papers and said, “these are the times that try men’s souls.”
the battle of trenton
The Battle of Trenton
  • Washington decided to attack the Hessians at Trenton, New Jersey on Christmas
  • On December 25, 1776, Washington and 2,400 soldiers silently crossed the Delaware River
  • The men were short on supplies – many had no shoes
  • Early on December 26, the Patriots attacked, winning the Battle of Trenton in less than an hour
    • The Patriots captured over 900 Hessians with just 5 Patriot casualties
the battle of princeton
The Battle of Princeton
  • Washington planned another surprise attack for January 3rd
  • On the night of January 2nd, the Patriots kept their campfires burning and circled around behind the British troops
  • The Battle of Princeton was another victory for the Patriots
  • As the British fled, Washington cheered, “It’s a fine fox chase, my boys!”
the british plan of attack
The British Plan of Attack
  • The British were embarrassed by their losses at Trenton and Princeton and decided to plan an attack
  • They planned to cut New England off from the rest of the colonies with the following plan:
    • British troops led by General John Burgoyne would take back Fort Ticonderoga then march south
    • A second group would march east from lake Ontario
    • Last, General Howe’s men would march north from New York City
  • The plan was for the 3 groups to meet at Albany, New York
british victories
British Victories
  • General Burgoyne recaptured Fort Ticonderoga in July, 1777 but had a few problems
    • Colonists chopped down large trees across his path to Albany, slowing his progress
    • Both of the other groups meeting him in Albany were late
  • Howe was late because he decided to attack Philadelphia before going to Albany
  • At the Battle of Brandywine Creek on September 11, 1777 Howe’s forces won a convincing victory
    • The Patriots suffered twice as many casualties as the British
    • The British capture the colonial capital of Philadelphia
    • Howe made a mistake in allowing many more Patriots to escape
the battle of saratoga
The Battle of Saratoga
  • Burgoyne gets closer to Albany, unaware that the other forces are late and that he is badly outnumbered
  • At the Battle of Saratoga, the Patriots led by General Horatio Gates drove back a British attack and surrounded Burgoyne
    • Benedict Arnold was one of the heroes of this battle
  • On October 17, 1777 Burgoyne’s entire army surrenders to General Gates, this is a major turning point in the war and it led to more support from other countries – France
  • Over 7,200 British casualties – 6,222 surrender
  • James Thacher, “This event will make one of the most brilliant pages of American history.”
foreign allies
Foreign Allies
  • France and Spain were enemies of Great Britain and had been secretly helping the Patriots
  • Benjamin Franklin went to France to increase French support of the Revolution
  • The victory at Saratoga convinced France that America could win the war – in May 1778 the alliance with France is finalized
  • Spain joins the war against Britain in 1779 – Spanish soldiers help mostly on the western frontier
important foreign allies
Important Foreign Allies
  • Bernardo de Galvez
    • The governor of Spanish Louisiana
    • He allowed the Americans to use New Orleans
    • An important ally of the Patriots
    • He led attacks on British forts along the Mississippi River
  • Marquis de Lafayette
    • A wealthy young Frenchman who arrived in 1777
    • Personal friend of George Washington
    • Had a strong belief in the Patriot cause
    • Was wounded at Brandywine Creek
    • Gave $200,000 of his own money to support the Revolution
important foreign allies1
Important Foreign Allies
  • Casimir Pulaski
    • A soldier from Poland who came to America to fight in the Revolution
    • “The father of American cavalry”
    • Became a general in the Continental Army
    • Saved the life of George Washington
    • Wounded by grapeshot during the siege of Savannah, Georgia, he later died from his wound
    • 1 of only 7 people to be awarded honorary U.S. citizenship
    • One of the most honored Americans ever in terms of places named after him
winter at valley forge
Winter at Valley Forge
  • The entry of France and Spain came at a critical time for the Patriots
  • In December 1777, Washington settles his troops at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
  • There they suffer shortages of food and clothing – during the winter of 1777-1778 over 20% of the soldiers die of disease and malnutrition
  • By the end of the winter, many of the troops were ready to quit but they also learned valuable military skills during this time
quotes on valley forge
Quotes on Valley Forge
  • "An army of skeletons appeared before our eyes naked, starved, sick and discouraged,“ - New York's Governor Morris of the Continental Congress
  • The Marquis de Lafayette wrote: "The unfortunate soldiers were in want of everything; they had neither coats nor hats, nor shirts, nor shoes. Their feet and their legs froze until they were black, and it was often necessary to amputate them.".
friedrich von steuben
Friedrich von Steuben
  • A veteran Prussian army officer who spoke no English
  • He helped teach the American troops basic military skills
  • Eventually, the Continental Army is a well-trained group of soldiers
the war at sea
The War at Sea
  • The Continental Navy is created in 1775, but by February 1776 the navy had only 8 fighting ships
  • The British navy is much larger and can easily transport troops and attack American ports
  • Instead of fighting large battles, the Patriots attack individual British ships
    • During the war the British lost hundreds of ships to American raiding vessels
    • Many American raiding ships were not part of the Continental Navy – individuals fought to gain British cargo that they captured
the war at sea john paul jones
The War at Sea – John Paul Jones
  • John Paul was born in Scotland and began working on ships at a young age
  • After killing a man, he flees to America and adds “Jones” to his name
  • When the war broke out, Jones joined the navy, quickly establishing himself as a brave and clever sailor
  • The French, who greatly admired Jones, gave him a fleet of eight vessels for him to command
  • Jones had a famous victory against the British warship Serapis in 1779
  • Jones became the United States’ first sailor to gain the rank of 1st Lieutenant