Chapter 4 Adolescence
Adolescence • Can be defined several ways • Time period of mixed abilities and responsibilities • Some societies do not recognize adolescence • Initiation Rite: Ceremony or ritual marking acceptance into adulthood.
Adolescence con’t • G. Stanley Hall: Adolescence is a transitional stage. • Fully grown animal in a cage. • Storm and stress. Confused, troubled, and highly Frustrated • Margaret Mead: Adolescent storm and stress by product of industrialized society.
Adolescence con’t • Contemporary studies tend to support Mead’s theory. • 11% encounter serious difficulty • 32% experience sporadic problems • 57% enjoy basically positive, healthy development
Accepting physical make-up/acquiring masculine or feminine traits Develop appropriate relations with age-mates (both sexes) Become emotionally independent from parents and other adults Achieving assurance of economic independence Deciding, preparing, and entering a vocation Developing necessary cognitive skills and concepts for social competence Understanding and achieving socially responsible behavior Preparing for marriage and family Acquiring harmonious & appropriate values Robert Havighurst (1972) identified tasks of the Adolescent
Adolescence con’t • Development is highly individualized • Many factors affect development: • Adjustments in childhood • Level of adjustment of parents and peers • Changes that occur during adolescence
Physical Development • Adolescence is accompanied with puberty-the biological event that marks the end of childhood (Sexual Maturity) • Average girl begins puberty between 8-10 yrs old. • Average boy begins between 9-16
Physical Development con’t • Experience growth spurt prior to puberty • Girls experience menarche-1st menstrual cycle • Boys experience spermarche- 1st ejaculation
Physical Development con’t • Rate and pattern of development varies so much there is no way to apply norms and standards • Boys and girls can both experience asynchrony- uneven growth or maturation of body parts
Reactions to Growth • Adolescents want to fit in • Tend to compare themselves to culture’s body ideals • Rate of development can affect personality. Can result in a self-fulfilling prophecy.
Sexual Development • Patterns of sexual behavior vary from generation to generation and culture to culture • Fear of STD’s, AIDS, and unwanted pregnancy have caused adolescents to examine risks of sexual activity. • Caused debate over role of family, religion, and government in sex ed.
Cognitive Development • At age 11-12, reach formal Operations thinking. Can think abstractly • Can rationalize unpleasant emotions or behaviors • Rate varies. Culture may be a factor. • Adolescents may struggle regulating.
Problems developed • Finding fault with authority • Argumentativeness • Indecisiveness • Apparent Hypocrisy • Self-Consciousness • Invulnerability
Moral Development • Before adolescence, morality based on consequences. • Adolescents move to Stage 4(Kohlberg): Socially acceptable. • Some advance to Stage 5 and 6. • 5: Fair and just • 6: Form absolute ethical principles • Parent relationship has largest impact
Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Development • Identity Crisis- A time of inner conflict during which adolescents worry intensely about their identity • Stage 5:Identity vs. Role Confusion • Who am I • Find a way to express themselves through an identity that is socially acceptable
James Marcia • Agreed with Erikson • 4 stages of identity: • 1.Identity Moratorium-Have considered, made no decision • 2.Identity Foreclosure-Have made decisions based on influence of others. • 3. Identity Confused- Have not considered and made no decision • 4.Identity achievement- Have made decision freely and openly.
Social Learning View • Albert Bandura-Learn identity through interaction • Margaret Mead- continuous process.
Social Development • Achieving autonomy is a major goal of adolescence • Families have changed markedly since 1970 • Parents must deal with letting children go • Children struggle with fear of failing.
Social Development • Peer groups eventually replace parents. • Cliques reinforce and influence behavior. • Personal characteristics are a major factor in acceptance
Social Development • Fear of being disliked leads to conformity • Basic values still heavily influenced by parents
Difficulties during adolescence • Changes can lead to psychological problems • Adolescents have feeling of invulnerability • Many carry troubles with them to adulthood.
Depression and Suicide • Can be triggered by loss • Death • Relocation • Separation/Divorce • Depressed teen will appear angry and act out
Eating Disorders • Anorexia Nervosa-refusing to eat • See themselves as fat • Refusal to grow up • Control over life • Bulimia Nervosa-binge and purge • Obsessed with body shape and weight • Need to find approval • Depression, anxiety, and mood swings
Gender Roles • Gender Identity-Physical Traits that make one male or female • Gender Role-Standard by which a certain Gender Identity is supposed to behave • Partly defined by genetic make-up • Mostly defined by society and culture
Gender Roles • Gender Roles vary from culture to culture. • May change over time within one culture • In our society, Gender Roles have blurred. • Androgynous Roles-involve mixture of traditionally male and female roles.
Gender Differences: Personality • Males more self-confident • Women perceive as less confident, unless given direct feedback. • Males use physical aggression. Females use verbal aggression. • Men actually talk more • Women use hedges, disclaimers, and tag questions.
Gender Differences: Cognitive Abilities • Little difference between males and females • Perform the same until high school • Males outperform in problem solving and mathematics • Females better at tracking objects
Origins of Gender Differences • Biological Theory-Genetic, evolved from behaviors of early people • Psychoanalytical-develop from identifying with same-sex parent • Social Learning Theory-Children learn roles through observation • Cognitive-Developmental Theory-acquire roles through interacting and then thinking about experiences • Develop Gender Schema
Changing Gender Roles • Have changed dramatically in US in last 40 years • Women still advance slower than men in the workplace.