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U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey
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U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey

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  1. Regreening the Sahel andFarmer Managed Natural Regeneration:What the Satellite Imagery ShowsFirst Drylands WeekJune 10-17, 2011 Dakar, SenegalGray Tappan, U.S. Geological SurveyEarth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) CenterSioux Falls, South Dakota USAtappan@usgs.gov U.S. Department of the Interior U.S. Geological Survey

  2. The U.S. Geological Survey’s Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center’s vision is to be the world’s leading source of land information for exploring our changing planet.

  3. Many thanks for funding and support: U.S. Agency for International Development CILSS (Permanent Interstate Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel) African Regreening Initiative Centre de Suivi Ecologique, Senegal Institut des Sciences de l’Environnement (ISE/UCAD), Senegal

  4. Challenges in Monitoring Agro-Environmental Transformations • Farmers don’t tell you when they’ve made land improvements • Biophysical changes occur on a vast geographic scale • Distinguishing climate versus anthropogenic factors is complicated • Visual evidence of benefits often not apparent in less than 3-4 years; • Significant biophysical changes may take a decade or more • Time-series mapping of land cover is technically challenging

  5. Remote Sensing: A Definition • Remote sensing is the science and art of acquiring information about the Earth’s surface without being in physical contact with it. Image Courtesy of NASA: SeaWiFs

  6. Remote Sensing Advantages • Synoptic perspective • Unique vantage point • Extra-visual information • Historical and permanent record Image Courtesy of NASA: SeaWiFs

  7. Remote sensing systems that provide coverage of West Africa • Meteosat • SeaWIFS • MODIS • SPOT Vegetation • NOAA-AVHRR • Landsat • Corona • ASTER • SPOT 5 • IKONOS • Quickbird • Historical Aerial Photography • Recent Aerial Photography • Aerial Videography SeaWIFS Image

  8. Approach to Mapping, Monitoring, and Modeling LULC *Levels of Data Collection • Satellite level • Aerial level • Ground level *All data collected through time

  9. Field Data Collection: 1982 – 1984 Dicrostachys glomerata

  10. Permanent Monitoring Sites in Senegal (Established in 1982-1983)

  11. Field Data Collection: • Determining vegetation • structure for mapping • Species-level inventories • to monitor biodiversity • Biomass and carbon • measurements

  12. Revisited Ground Sites to Document Changes in Natural Resources 1994 1983 1983 1996 1996 1998

  13. Jan 1983 Monitoring on-farm trees in the Peanut Basin: 28-year comparison Feb 2011

  14. 1984 Protection of an ecosystem: (Niokolo-Koba, Senegal) Woody Species at Site 487: 1984 Bombax costatum Annona senegalensis Combretum crotonoides Combretum geitonophyllum Combretum glutinosum Combretum micranthum Combretum nigricans Crossopterix febrifuga Danielia oliveri Detarium microcarpum Gardenia erubescens Hexalobus monopetalus Hymenocardia acida Lannea acida Ostryoderris stuhlmannii Piliostigma thonningii Pterocarpus erinaceus Stychnos spinosa Terminalia avicennioides Terminalia macroptera Vitex madiensis Ximenia americana Cordyla pinnata Entada africana Sterculia setigera 2007 Bombax costatum Annona senegalensis Combretum crotonoides Combretum geitonophyllum Combretum glutinosum Combretum micranthum Combretum nigricans Crossopterix febrifuga Danielia oliveri Detarium microcarpum Gardenia erubescens Hexalobus monopetalus Hymenocardia acida Lannea acida Ostryoderris stuhlmannii Piliostigma thonningii Pterocarpus erinaceus Stychnos spinosa Terminalia avicennioides Terminalia macroptera Vitex madiensis Ximenia americana Cordyla pinnata Entada africana Sterculia setigera 2007

  15. Aerial Surveys with the Centre de Suivi Ecologique (CSE)

  16. A powerful combination: Airplane, GPS and a camera

  17. Landsat Image: Mangroves, Protected areas, and Cropland

  18. Mapping and Monitoring: The Senegal Experience • Mapped the Land Resources of Senegal (1982 - 1985) • Monitored land cover trends with CSE through four decades (completed in 1999) • Built on results for quantifying carbon stocks in soils and vegetation (completed in 2003) • Currently assessing and mapping land resources in • the Kedougou and Casamance Regions

  19. Published Vegetation Map of Senegal (1986)

  20. Soils of Senegal

  21. Seasonal Vegetation Patterns NOAA-AVHRR NDVI (vegetation index or greenness)

  22. Satellite observed greening trend Trends in NDVI 1982 – 2006 corrected for the effects of rainfall: Source: Herrmann et al., 2005

  23. Tree Parkland Dominated by Faidherbia albida: Leaf-off Stage in the Rainy Season

  24. Enlargement from a Landsat Image, October 2000: Tree parklands notvisible (south of Aguié, Niger) 0 5 km

  25. Niger Land Cover in 1975

  26. Niger Land Cover in 2000

  27. Southern Niger in the 1980s

  28. Southern Niger in 1997: Early Evidence of FMNR

  29. Preparing for flight at Tahoua, Niger

  30. Tahoua Region, Niger in 2005: Well established FMNR

  31. Parkland Renaissance: trees are young and growing

  32. Agricultural Parkland east of Matamèye

  33. Impact of trees on crop growth

  34. Impact of a single F. albida tree on crop growth (radius of high productivity: 5 m around a small tree)

  35. Quickbird Image of Medium Density Tree Parkland East of Maradi, Oct. 2005

  36. 1955 Landscape Dynamics Southwest of Zinder 2005 1975

  37. 1955 Landscape Dynamics Southwest of Zinder 1975 2005

  38. Percent Tree Cover Trend in the Study Area (Mirria-Magaria-Matameye Triangle)

  39. General Extent of Farmer-Managed Natural Regeneration

  40. Is It Increased Rainfall?

  41. More People – More Trees Population

  42. Location of 12 Terroirs Used for Comparing Tree Density Across the Niger-Nigeria Border Niger • Tahoua Terroirs • Zinder • Maradi ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ ■ Nigeria ■ ■ 0 200 km

  43. Terroir in Niger 19 km North of the Niger-Nigeria Border Source: Google Earth, 2005 Source: Google Earth, 2005