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End of World War II & Beginning of Cold War . 1945-1950. Legacies of WWII: Death and Destruction. Most European cities were destroyed by bombing from both sides About 50 million people were killed around the world Homelessness was a huge problem in Europe as well as Displaced Persons

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End of World War II & Beginning of Cold War


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    1. End of World War II & Beginning of Cold War 1945-1950

    2. Legacies of WWII: Death and Destruction • Most European cities were destroyed by bombing from both sides • About 50 million people were killed around the world • Homelessness was a huge problem in Europe as well as Displaced Persons • People without a home (ex. Jews sent to concentration camps)

    3. Ruins of Berlin

    4. German women cleaning up Berlin

    5. Legacy of World War II: War Crimes • Horrific actions of Nazis had to be addressed • Genocide is defined • Nuremberg Trials • Main Nazi leaders put on trial for “crimes against humanity” • Most found guilty and sentenced to death for their role in Hitler’s Final Solution • Set precedent for future; atrocities cannot be committed in war and go unpunished

    6. Peace Agreements and Division Tehran Conference (1943) Yalta Conference (1945) Discussion on post-war Europe Divide Germany into 4 zones Reparations and territorial loss for Germany Allow Eastern Europe to determine their own governments • Meeting on war strategy • Soviets would attack from East • US & Britain promise to invade France (D-Day) and attack from West

    7. The Big Three @ Yalta

    8. Postwar Europe & Origins of Cold War:Division of Germany • After the war, Germany was divided by the Allies • West Germany: controlled by U.S., G.B. and France • East Germany: controlled by Soviet Union • City of Berlin was divided too • West Berlin: controlled by U.S., G.B. and France • East Berlin: controlled by Soviet Union

    9. Division of Germany

    10. Postwar Europe & Origins of Cold War:Rising Antagonisms • US cuts off economic aid to USSR • Stalin forces communist dictatorships on Eastern Europe • Winston Churchill gives “Iron Curtain” speech • Communist revolutionaries wage civil wars in Greece and China

    11. Postwar Europe & the Origins of the Cold War:Truman Doctrine • Policy of “containment” • United States would stop the spread of communism into non-communist areas through economic or military means

    12. Postwar Europe & the Origins of the Cold War: The Marshall Plan • US feared the destruction of war would lead to communist takeovers throughout Europe • Marshall Plan • Economic aid open to all European nations to rebuild • Money accepted by Western European nations only • $13 billion ($200 billion today) spent in Europe

    13. Propaganda supporting Marshall Plan

    14. Postwar Europe & the Origins of the Cold War: The Berlin Blockade • Berlin located deep in East Germany • Stalin orders closure of roads into West Berlin to force western powers out • US airlifts supplies for over a year to beat the blockade; USSR lifts blockade in 1948

    15. Postwar Europe & the Origins of the Cold War: NATO and the Warsaw Pact • Defensive alliances created by US and Soviet Union • NATO (1949): US and Western Europe • Warsaw Pact (1955): Soviet Union and Eastern Europe • Impact: assured that Europe would be divided into two armed blocs