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Gases : Dimensionless particles in constant straight line motion colliding with their container walls 100 % elastically to create pressure.

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slide1

Gases: Dimensionless particles in constant straight line motion colliding with their container walls 100 % elastically to create pressure

slide2

Liquids: Condensed state in which the particles are clustered (100-1000 particles). Order is found within the clusters but not from cluster to cluster. Attractive forces significant to make clusters but not significant enough to keep clusters from moving pasteach other.

slide3

Solids:

with attractive forces between the particles

Structural units

strong enough to make a rigid structure.

(i.e. particles held in fixed positions by chemical bonds)

slide4

Solids: Structural units with attractive forces between the particles strong enough to make a rigid structure.

With An Order

Without An Order

(amorphous)

(crystalline)

slide7

Solids: Structural units with attractive forces between the particles strong enough to make a rigid structure.

With An Order

Without An Order

(amorphous)

(crystalline)

Simplest Repeating Pattern in 3-D

Unit Cell…

Eight points of a crystal lattice.

(many types)

A box

A parallelopiped…

A polyhedron with six faces, all of which are parallelograms

slide8

Octahedral Coordination

Coordination # = 6

1 Particle per Unit Cell

Simple Cubic

Polonium

slide9

Coordination # = 8

2 Particles per Unit Cell

Body-Centered Cubic

Sodium

slide10

Coordination # = 12

4 Particles per Unit Cell

Face-Centered Cubic

Copper

slide12

A

C

B

X

X

X

A

X

X

slide13

Example Problem…Unit Cell Calculations:

If nickel is cubic close packed and an edge of the unit cell is 352.4 pm, calculate the density of nickel.

slide14

Example Problem…Unit Cell Calculations:

If nickel is cubic close packed and an edge of the unit cell is 352.4 pm, calculate the density of nickel.

=8.94 g/cm3

D= m/V

= 3.90x10-22 g/(3.52 x10-8cm)3

V = [(352.4 pm)(1 cm/1010 pm)]3

V = (3.52 x 10-8 cm)3

m = (4 atoms)(58.7 g/6.02x1023atoms)

m = 3.90x10-22 g

slide16

q

q

d

C

A

B

sin q = AB/d

2dsin q = nl

dsin q = AB

Bragg’s Equation

slide17

In diffraction experiments involving silver crystals, info shows that constructive interference of the first order occurs when the angle of the incident x-ray is equal to 14.21° if the wavelength of the radiation is 0.7093 angstroms. What is the inter-atomic spacing of such a crystal (in cm)?

slide18

In diffraction experiments involving silver crystals, info shows that constructive interference of the first order occurs when the angle of the incident x-ray is equal to 14.21° if the wavelength of the radiation is 0.7093 angstroms. What is the inter-atomic spacing of such a crystal (in cm)?

2dsinq = nl

d = nl/2sinq

d = 7.093 x10-9 cm/0.4910

d = 1.44 x10-8 cm

slide19

The Seven Crystal Systems

1. Cubic (isometric) a = b= c a = b = g = 90°

slide21

The Seven Crystal Systems

1. Cubic (isometric) a = b= c a = b = g = 90°

Examples: polonium, sodium

slide22

The Seven Crystal Systems

2. Tetragonal a = b= c a = b = g = 90°

Examples: SnO2, BaSO4• 4H2O

slide23

The Seven Crystal Systems

3. Orthorhombic a = b= c a = b = g = 90°

Examples: KNO3, FeSO4• 7H2O

slide24

The Seven Crystal Systems

4. Monoclinic a = b= c a = g = 90°b = 90°

Examples: Sugar, CuSO4• 5H2O

slide25

The Seven Crystal Systems

5. Triclinic a = b= c a = b = g = 90°

Examples: CuSO4• 5H2O, K2Cr2O7

slide26

The Seven Crystal Systems

6. Hexagonal a = b= c a = b = 90° g = 120°

Examples:

Mg, graphite

slide27

The Seven Crystal Systems

7. Rhombohedral (trigonal) a = b= c a = b = g = 90°

Examples: AgNO3, CaCO3

slide28

4 ions of each type per unit cell

NaCl

Coordination # of 6 for each ion

slide29

2 ⅓ ions of each type per unit cell

ZnS

Coordination # of 4 for each ion

slide30

4 ions of each type per unit cell

ZnS

Coordination # of 4 for each ion

slide31

8 atoms per unit cell

Diamond

Coordination # of 4 for each atom