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Molecules & Solids

Molecules & Solids

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Molecules & Solids

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  1. Molecules & Solids Harris Ch 9 Eisberg & Resnick Ch 13 & 14 RNave: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solcon.html#solcon Alison Baski: http://www.courses.vcu.edu/PHYS661/pdf/01SolidState041.ppt Carl Hepburn, “Britney Spear’s Guide to Semiconductor Physics”. http://britneyspears.ac/lasers.htm

  2. http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solcon.html#solconhttp://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/solcon.html#solcon

  3. Harris Sections • Bonding in Molecules (9.1-9.2) • Rotation and Vibration in Molecules (9.3) • Types of Solids & Crystals (9.4) • Nearly Free-Electron Model (9.5) • Conductors, Insulators, Semiconductors (9.6-9.9) • Superconductivity (9.10)

  4. A first look - Sharing ElectronsHarris 9.1

  5. Isolated Atoms

  6. Diatomic Molecule

  7. Four Closely Spaced Atoms conduction band valence band

  8. N closely-spaced Atoms the level of interest has the same nrg in each separated atom Harris 9.2

  9. Two atoms Six atoms Solid of N atoms ref: A.Baski, VCU 01SolidState041.ppt www.courses.vcu.edu/PHYS661/pdf/01SolidState041.ppt

  10. Solid composed of ~NA Na Atomsas fn(R) 1s22s22p63s1

  11. Sodium Bands vs Separation Rohlf Fig 14-4 and Slater Phys Rev 45, 794 (1934)

  12. Copper Bands vs Separation Rohlf Fig 14-6 and Kutter Phys Rev 48, 664 (1935)

  13. Differences down a column in the Periodic Table: IV-A Elements same valence config Sandin

  14. The 4A Elements

  15. Bonding in MoleculesHarris 9.2

  16. Bonding http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/chemcon.html#c1 R Nave, Georgia State Univ

  17. Chemical Bonding http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bondcon.html#c1 R Nave, Georgia State Univ

  18. Ionic Bonds RNave, GSU at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html#c4

  19. Ionic Bonds

  20. Covalent Bonds RNave, GSU at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html#c4

  21. Covalent Bonding SYM ASYM spatial spin ASYM SYM spatial spin s* s

  22. Harris

  23. Covalent Diatomic Level Diagram Harris Fig 9.8

  24. Covalent Bonding not really parallel, but spin-symmetric Stot = 1 Stot = 0 not really anti, but spin-asym E&R

  25. Covalent Two atoms Six atoms Solid of N atoms ref: A.Baski, VCU 01SolidState041.ppt www.courses.vcu.edu/PHYS661/pdf/01SolidState041.ppt

  26. Interesting Pictures

  27. Covalent Bonding with p-orbitals Harris 9.9 & 9.10

  28. Bonding with p-orbitals Harris 9.11

  29. Bonding Dissimilar Atoms-- broken symmetry H 9.14 & Table 9.1

  30. Ionic Characteristics Crystalline solids High melting & boiling point Conduct electricity when melted Many soluble in water, but not in non-polar liquids Covalent Characteristics Gases, liquids, non-crystalline solids Low melting & boiling point Poor conductors in all phases Many soluble in non-polar liquids but not water Ionic vs Covalent Bond Properties

  31. Ionic Bonds RNave, GSU at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html#c4

  32. Ionic Bonds

  33. Ionic Bonding RNave, Georgia State Univ at hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/molecule

  34. Covalent Bonds RNave, GSU at http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/chemical/bond.html#c4

  35. Covalent Bonding SYM ASYM spatial spin ASYM SYM spatial spin space-symmetric tend to be closer

  36. Covalent Bonding not really parallel, but spin-symmetric Stot = 1 Stot = 0 not really anti, but spin-asym space-symmetric tend to be closer

  37. Molecular ExcitationsRotation, Vibration, ElectricHarris 9.3

  38. Rotational Spectra w rotational A.M. moment of inertia

  39. Rotation

  40. Rotation

  41. Rotational Spectra

  42. Vibration

  43. Vibration (in an Electronic state)

  44. Ocean Optics: Nitrogen N2 ~ 0.3 eV ~ 0.4 eV

  45. Electronic + Vibration

  46. Electronic + Vibration + Rotation 2.550 eV 2.656 eV electronic excitation gap vibrational excitation gaps

  47. Electronic + Vibration + Rotation Vibrational Well Vibrational Well 2.656 eV depth ~ 0.063 eV electronic excitation gap vibrational excitation gaps

  48. Electronic, Vibration, Rotation Electronic ~ optical & UV ~ 1 – 3 eV Vibration ~ IR ~ 10ths of eV Rotation ~ microwave ~ 1000ths of eV Harris 9.24