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Properties and classification of matter. What is matter?. All matter is composed of particles ( atoms , ions or molecules ). 6. We will be studying states of matter: solids liquids gases There is also plasma, liquid crystal and Bose-Einstein condensates. Mass.

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Presentation Transcript
slide4
6
  • We will be studying states of matter:
  • solids
  • liquids
  • gases
  • There is also plasma, liquid crystal and Bose-Einstein condensates
slide6
Mass

– the quantity of particles in a substance

- mesured in kg or pounds

–the quantity of space occupied by a substance

- mesured in cm3 or mL

Volume

Solids

Liquids

solids
SOLIDS
  • The particles are very close together
  • There is a high force of attraction between the particles
solids1
SOLIDS
  • Possess a definedmass (does not change)

Possess a definedform (does not change)

solids2
SOLIDS
  • The particles don’t spread out in a container
  • Cannot be invisible

The particles don’t move around, but they can vibrate. The force of gravity is always pushing on the particles.

liquids
LIQUIDS
  • The particles are close together, but there is space between them.

The force of attraction between the particles is less than that of solids. The particles can easily move around.

slide11
LIQUIDS
  • Possess a defined mass

Possess a defined volume

slide12
LIQUIDS
  • The particles spread out in a container (they take the container’s form, so their form is indefinite).
  • Cannot be invisible

Particles can move easily

slide13
GASES
  • The particles are very spread out.
  • Possess an undefined volume.

The force of attraction is very small, as is the force of gravity.

slide14
GASES
  • Possess an undefinedmass (as the particles are always moving)

Possess an undefinedform (take the form of their container)

???

gases
GASES
  • The particles spread out in a container (take its form)
  • Can be invisible

The particles can easily move around

review solids
Review: Solids
  • Mass?
  • Volume?
  • Form?
  • Attraction?
  • Particles?
  • Invisible?
  • Take the form of the container?

defined

defined

defined

high

close together

no

no

review liquids
Review: Liquids

defined

  • Mass?
  • Volume?
  • Form?
  • Attraction?
  • Particles?
  • Invisible?
  • Take the form of the container?

defined

undefined

somewhat attracted

somewhat spaced out

no

yes

slide18
Review:Gases
  • Mass?
  • Volume?
  • Form?
  • Attraction?
  • Particles?
  • Invisible?
  • Take the form of the container?

undefined

undefined

undefined

a little

spread out

yes/no

yes

slide19
Review: Solid,

Liquid and/or Gas??

review solid liquid and or gas
Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Particles move quickly

Gas

review solid liquid and or gas1
Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Particles only vibrate

Solid

review solid liquid and or gas2
Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Takes the form of its container

Gas and Liquid

review solid liquid and or gas3
Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

The particles are very spread out

Gas

review solid liquid and or gas4
Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Defined mass

Solid and Liquid

review solid liquid and or gas5
Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Very little attraction between the particles

Gas

review solid liquid and or gas6
Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Does not take the form of its container

Solid

review solid liquid and or gas7
Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Defined masse and volume

Solid and Liquid

review solid liquid and or gas8
Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Not affected by gravity

Gas

review solid liquid and or gas9
Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Defined masse, defined volume, undefined form

Liquid

review solid liquid and or gas11
Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Strong attraction between particles

Solid

review solid liquid and or gas12
Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Particles can move around

Gas and Liquid

review solid liquid and or gas13
Review: Solid, Liquid and/or Gas??

Defined masse, defined volume, defined form

Solid

the particle theory of matter
The particle theory of matter

- See page 156 of Science Power 9

plasma
Plasma
  • Exists at very high temperatures
  • Exists in nature
  • Used in atomic lasers
  • Examples:
    • The Sun’s nucleus
    • Stars
    • Flashes of lightning
bose einstein condensates
Bose-Einstein Condensates
  • The lowest state of matter
  • Exists at very cold termperatures only
  • Absolute Zero (0°Kelvin = -273 °Celsius)
  • All particle movement stops
  • A SUPER SOLID is formed!!
slide38
Bose-Einstein

Condensate

slide40
CONDENSATION

SOLIDIFICATION

SUBLIMATION

EVAPORATION

MELTING

Bose-Einstein

Condensate

slide41
Properties

of Matter

slide43
Matter

Mixtures

Pure

Substances

pure substances
Pure Substances
  • A pure substance pure is made up of one type of particle (atoms or molecules)
  • Water
  • Chlorine
  • Oxygen
mixtures
Mixtures
  • Contain 2+ different types of particles that do not chemically react. They maintain their chemical characteristics but their physical properties may change.
    • Can be heterogenous or homogenous
  • Examples:
    • Sugar and water
    • Salt and pepper
    • Gold ring
    • Diet Coke
slide46
Pure substances

Mixture

Element Compound

Homogeneous Heterogeneous

All particles are identical.

There is more than one type of particle

slide47
Matter

Mixtures

Pure

Substances

Mechanical Mixtures

Solutions

slide49
Classify

the Mixture

classify the mixture
Classify the Mixture

DietPepsi

Heterogenous

classify the mixture1
Classify the Mixture

Flat DietPepsi

Homogenous

classify the mixture2
Classify the Mixture

Black coffee

Homogenous

classify the mixture3
Classify the Mixture

Dirt

Heterogenous

classify the mixture4
Classify the Mixture

Sugar

Homogenous

classify the mixture5
Classify the Mixture

The air in New York

Heterogenous

classify the mixture6
Classify the Mixture

Sand

Heterogenous

classify the mixture7
Classify the Mixture

Aluminum foil

Homogenous

classify the mixture8
Classify the Mixture

Sugar & water

Homogenous

classify the mixture9
Classify the Mixture

Spaghetti

Heterogenous

classify the mixture10
Classify the Mixture

Paint

Heterogenous

classify the mixture11
Classify the Mixture

Mayonnaise

Homogenous

classify the mixture12
Classify the Mixture

Alcohol

Homogenous/

Heterogenous

classify the mixture13
Classify the Mixture

Chocolate chip ice cream

Heterogenous

classify the mixture14
Classify the Mixture

Oil and vinagar salad dressing

Heterogenous

classify the mixture15
Classify the Mixture

Vegetable Soup

Heterogenous

slide66
Matter

Mixtures

Pure

Substances

Mechanical Mixtures

Solutions

Heterogenous

Homogenous

types of mixtures1
Types of Mixtures
  • Homogenous mixtures are called solutions
  • Heterogenous mixtures are called mechanical mixtures
slide68
Types of Mixtures1. Mechanical Mixtures -They are heterogeneous (have two or more visible parts). The two different types of substances are easy to see and can be easily separated.a) Mechanical mixtures - two solids mixed together; e.g., sand and rocks, wood chips and beads.b) Suspensions - a solid and a liquid which mix but settle upon standing; e.g., silt and water.

http://mrmcclung.ca/substances/substanceshome.html

types of mixtures2
Types of mixtures

c) Colloids- are homogeneous mixtures that are made of particles of one substance suspended into another. The suspended particles get stuck in the spaces of the other particles. This allows them to scatter light. Colloids will show the Tyndall Effect.

Examples of colloids are: butter, mayonnaise, steam, clouds, fog, egg white, paint, smoke, whipped cream, shaving cream, gel, hair mousse, homogenized milk

http://mrmcclung.ca/substances/substanceshome.html

tyndal effect
Tyndal Effect

Some mixtures that appear to be solutions may prove not to be solutions after all. If the path of a bright light shining through a mixture can easily be seen, then that mixture is not a solution.

A non-solution contains particles large enough to scatter or reflect light, showing the path of light as it passes through the mixture. This scattering of light is called the Tyndall Effect. True solutions do not show the Tyndall Effect.

http://mrmcclung.ca/substances/substanceshome.html

slide71
2. Solutions- have minute particles that do not settle out. They are homogeneous transparent (can see through) with a solute is dissolved into a solvent

Examples:

  • Non-transparent (ie. Alloys – a homogeneous mixture of a metal with one or more metals or non-metals . Example: a nickel – 75% copper and 25% nickel
  • Transparent – salt water
slide76
Properties

of Matter

matter
Matter
  • Definition: All substances which possess a masse and a volume
  • All matter possesses physical and chemical properties
chemical properties
Chemical Properties
  • All properties which can produce a new substance
chemical properties1
Chemical Properties
  • Examples:
    • A reaction with a substance which produces water
    • Flammability
    • Neutralizing an acid
    • Rotting
    • Corrosion
chemical properties2
Chemical Properties
  • Examples cont…
    • A reaction with water which produces a gas
    • The neutralization of a base
    • A reaction with oxygen
    • Electromotivity (Electricity can move through it)
physical properties
Physical Properties
  • All properties which we can observe or mesure which do not create a new substance
physical properties1
Physical Properties
  • Boiling point
  • Melting point
  • Density
  • Taste
  • Color
physical properties2
Physical Properties
  • Solubility (the ability to dissolve)
  • Hardness
  • Odor
  • Luster (reflection of light)
changes
Changes
  • All matter undergoes chemical and physical changes
slide86
Change

Chemical

Physical

Does not modify

modifies

The nature of the substance

indications of chemical change
Indications of Chemical Change

1. Formation of a gas

2. Formation of a precipitate (solid)

3. Color change

4. Production of heat and or light

indications of physical change
Indications of Physical Change

1. Change of shape

2. Change of phase (state of matter)

slide91
If we can reverse the change, it is a physical change.
  • Ex: water + salt = salt water
  • BUT: We can boil water and separate the water from the salt.
  •  * Physical change* 
classify the change
Classify the change

Le fer se rouille

Changement

Chimique

classify the change1
Classify the change

Un oeuf est cassé

Changement

Physique

classify the change2
Classify the change

L’hydroxde de sodium se dissout dans l’eau

Changement

Physique

classify the change3
Classify the change

Un bougie brûle

Changement

Chimique

classify the change4
Classify the change

Un glaçon fonde

Changement

Physique

classify the change5
Classify the change

Les pétards s’explosent

Changement

Chimique

classifier les changements
Classifier les changements 

Les stalactites de glace (icicles) forment

Changement

Physique

slide101
Du lait qui tourne (sours)

Changement

Chimique

slide104
On coupe lefromage

Changement

Physique

slide110
Ton chat fume

une cigarette

Changement

Chimique

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