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Urban Patterns. AP Human Geography. Urban refers to highly developed areas where businesses, people, and industry cluster. Not limited to big cities….also includes sub- urban areas. Where are people and activities distributed in urban areas? What patterns develop in urban areas?.

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urban patterns

Urban Patterns

AP Human Geography

urban geography

Urban refers to highly developed areas where businesses, people, and industry cluster.

  • Not limited to big cities….also includes sub-urban areas.
  • Where are people and activities distributed in urban areas?
  • What patterns develop in urban areas?
Urban Geography
central business district cbd

Aka “Downtown”

  • Less than 1% of land area
  • High % of services, public institutions
  • High accessibility
  • Focal point of transportation
Central Business District (CBD)
who locates in the cbd

Retailers w/ high threshold

    • Ex. Department stores
    • Now replaced by malls
  • Retailers w/ high range
    • Specialists, unique shops
  • Retailers serving downtown workers
    • Office supplies, coffee shops, dry cleaning, fast food restaurants
Who locates in the CBD?
characteristics of the cbd

Large public buildings such as libraries, churches, stations and town halls.

  • Specialty shops and branches of major department stores.
  • Movie theatres, clubs and theatres.
  • Very little housing, but often hotels.
  • Little or no industry.
  • Offices and other professional buildings.
  • High pedestrian levels and the greatest parking restrictions.
  • Geographical center of the settlement.
  • Area with the highest land value.
  • Well connected by public transport, with large numbers of passengers.
  • High traffic levels.
Characteristics of the CBD
land use in cbd s

Land is expensive in CBD’s

  • Tokyo, London, NYC
  • High cost of land forces vertical and underground expansion
  • Skyscrapers
  • Underground cities
Land Use in CBD’s
worlds most expensive land
Cost of Land per square meter
  • 1. Monte Carlo, Monaco – $47,5782. Moscow, Russia – $20,8533. London, England – $20,7564. Tokyo, Japan – $17,9985. Hong Kong – $16,1256. New York, USA – $14,8987. Paris, France – $12,1228. Singapore – $9,7019. Rome, Italy – $9,16610. Mumbai, India – $9,163
  • Land in LDC’s might be closer to $3-15 per square meter
  • Rural land is cheaper than urban land
Worlds Most Expensive Land
not found in cbd s

Industry

    • Have relocated to suburban areas
      • Old industrial areas (harbors/ piers) are now tourist attractions
      • Ex. Navy Pier
  • Residents
    • Fluctuation: originally rich mansions and crowded apts., then suburbs, now “empty nesters” return in search of nightlife, entertainment, etc.
Not Found in CBD’s
urban models

3 models, all developed in Chicago

  • Why Chicago?
    • Flat (prairie)
    • Few physical features that interrupt growth (except Lake Michigan)
  • Predict how cities will develop
  • Where will different groups of people live in urban areas?
Urban Models
concentric zone model

E.W. Burgess

  • City grows outward in a series of rings
  • 5 Rings
    • 1. CBD
    • 2. Transition (industry/ poor housing)
    • 3. Working class
    • 4. Better homes
    • 5. Commuters/ suburbs
Concentric Zone Model
sector model

Homer Hoyt

  • City develops in sectors (sections/ wedges) not rings.
  • Industry and retail develop along transportation lines
Sector Model
multiple nuclei model

Harris and Ulmann

  • Multiple centers around which activities revolve.
Multiple Nuclei Model