Urban Patterns. Defining “Urban” Models of Urban Structure Social Area Analysis Urban Patterns in Europe & Latin America Urban Problems. Defining Cities. We can define cities in two different ways:
Models of Urban Structure
Social Area Analysis
Urban Patterns in Europe & Latin America
The exact definition of an MSA has varied over time.
Today an MSA is defined as
A central city with a population of at least 50,000.
The county within which the city is located.
Adjacent counties with a high population density and a large percentage of residents working in the central city’s county.Defining Urban Settlements:Metropolitan Statistical Areas
For more information see: http://www.census.gov/population/www/metroareas/metroarea.html
An MSA within a CMSA that has more than one million people is a PrimaryMSA.“CMSA” — Beyond the MSA
For more information see: http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro.html;
Map source: http://www.census.gov/geo/www/maps/msa_maps2009/us_wall_1209.html
Under the CBSA standard there are two kinds of MSA:
METROPOLITAN statistical areas
MICROPOLITAN statistical areas.
A CBSA consists of one or more counties with a central city with a population of at least 10,000:
If the population is more than 50,000, it’s metropolitan.
If it’s between 10,000 and 50,000 it’s micropolitan.
There are at least 369 metropolitan, 576 micropolitan areas, and 125 “Combined Statistical Areas” in the US today.Clarifying:CBSA – MSA vs. mSA
For more information see: http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/aboutmetro.html
Skyline, Charlotte NC
Postulates a series of concentric rings of decreasing land value surrounding the Central Business District (CBD)
Pre World War II (1939)
Incorporates linear and transport corridors
Continued emphasis on CBD
Multiple Nuclei Model
Post World War II (1945)
Multiple “centers of attraction”
Less emphasis on a single CBDThree Models
The “Inner City”
Today, Chicago (and most other cities) are surrounded by independent cities – who generally do not want to become part of large cities.Chicago: Historical Annexation
Jefferson City, Missouri
Because of a combination of factors – poor planning, lack of opportunity, crime, etc. – all of the 28 buildings have been demolished and the area is being redeveloped.Public Housing
Gentrification can be beneficial – and controversial, if lower-income people are forced to leave their neighborhood because it’s become too expensive for them.Gentrification
Adapted from: http://media.www.lewisflyer.com/media/storage/paper638/news/2005/04/25/News/Gentrification.Stirs.Issues-935125.shtml
The major malls of Columbus OH
Sources (4-1-2005): http://www.mallofamerica.com/about_the_mall/mallfacts.aspx; http://www.bloomingtonmn.org/mallofamerica_facts.asp
Source (4-1-2005): http://www.westedmontonmall.com/home/default.asp
This is usually a matter of personal preference.
It’s also a matter of policy – government subsidizes motor vehicle use and road construction.
In 2001 92% of households had at least one car – and nearly a quarter had three or more.
In 2009 there were more than 254,000,000 cars, trucks and other vehicles registered in the US.UrbanTransportation
Adapted from: http://www.bts.gov/publications/pocket_guide_to_transportation/2004/html/figure_10.html;
On an average weekday in 2010, US transit systems carried over 35 million riders.Public Transportation in the US
Source: http://www.ntdprogram.com/NTD/NTST/2003/HTMLFiles/2003%20National%20Transit%20Summaries%20and%20Trends.htm; http://www.publictransportation.org/news/facts/Pages/default.aspx
Sources: http://www.cbs8.com/story/20136422/day-pass-for-mts-buses-rise-2; http://www.nbcsandiego.com/news/local/MTS-Will-No-Longer-Issue-5-Paper-Day-Passes-179581631.html; http://fox5sandiego.com/2012/11/19/mts-bus-passes-could-cost-more/
This makes it easier and more convenient to use public transportation.
In most cities in the US transportation systems are not integrated – which makes it much harder to use them.Public Transportation in Europe
Cities of the Future
"Visionary City," 1908
General Motor’s “Futurama,” 1939
Sources: http://www.geocities.com/ny1939wf/GMbuilding.html; http://www.yesterdaystomorrows.org/commimage.html ;http://www.victorycities.com/tour/index.html