Urban Patterns. Warm-Up. List 3 distinct problems of cities 1. 2. 3. List 3 distinct problems in the suburbs: 1. 2. 3. Urbanization – The process whereby an increasing percentage of people live in an urban area
Basic Elements of Urbanization: Increase in the number ofand percentage of people living in urban settlements.Increase in the land area occupied by urban settlements.
larger size (don’t know everyone).
higher density (specialization).
more heterogeneity (more tolerant of diversity).
Higher social heterogeneity in urban settlements means that you may feel lonely and isolated in a crowd (surrounded by people who don’t care about them).
1. Concentric Zone Model
2. Sector Model
*Homer Hoyt created it in 1939
*A city develops in a series of sectors, NOT RINGS
Development begins in certain areas of the city for various reasons. Then as a city grows it expands outward in a WEDGE or SECTOR from the center
Sector 1: CBD
Sector 2: Transportation and Industry
Sector 3: Low-class residential
Sector 4: Middle-class residential
Sector 5: High-class residential
3. Multiple Nuclei Model
*Created by Harris and Ullman in 1945
*Believes that cities are complex and include more than one center. A city consists of a collection of nodes around which certain types of people or activities cluster, while incompatible activities will avoid clustering in the same location.
*****Gentrification- A process of converting a neighborhood from low-income to middle-class******