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Classification of Organisms
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Classification of Organisms

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  1. Classification of Organisms • Carolus Linnaeus 1707-1778 is the father of binomial nomenclature • Way of identifying organisms • K,P,C,O,F,G,S • Now we have three domains • Archae – methanogens, thermophiles, halophiles • Bacteria (Eubacteria) – all other prokaryotes • Eukarya – protists, fungi, plant animals

  2. Protists - protozoans

  3. Amoeba

  4. Giardia – hiker’s diarrhea

  5. Trichonympha - termites

  6. Trypanosoma – African sleeping sickness

  7. Paramecium

  8. Diatom

  9. Red Algae

  10. Kelp Forest

  11. Volvox – Green Algae

  12. Slime Mold

  13. Fungi • Fungi grow as filaments – hyphae • Mycelium – mass of hyphae • Most do not have complete cell walls – septa divide walls • Cell walls – contain chitin • Haustoria – hyphae that penetrate their host. • Zygomycota – Bread mold • Ascomycota – cup fungus • Basidiomycota - mushrooms

  14. zygomycota

  15. Ascomycota

  16. Mushrooms - Basidiomycota

  17. Plants • Mosses, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms • Green algae is the ancestor of plants

  18. Animal Phylogeny • No symmetry – sponges – Porifera • Radial Symmetry – jellyfish – Cnidaria • Acoelomates – flatworms – Platyhelminthes • Pseudocoelomates – roundworms/rotifer – Nematoda • Coelomates – all others • Protostome – Molluscs, Annelids, Arthropods • Deuterostome – Chordates and Echinoderms

  19. Symmetry

  20. Body Cavity

  21. Sponges – Phylum Porifera • Sessile – does not move • Mostly marine • Multicellular – but has no tissues • No body symmetry • Gets nutrients through pores

  22. Sponges - Porifera

  23. Sponge Anatomy

  24. Phylum Cnidaria – stinging animals • Soft bodies with tentacles and stinging cells • Radial symmetry • One opening - both mouth and anus • Nerve net • Two cell layers – ectoderm and mesoderm • Polyp and medusa • Hydra, jelly fish, sea anemone

  25. Cnidarians

  26. Cnidarian Anatomy

  27. Tentacles

  28. Phylum Platyhelminthes - Flatworms • Flat bodies with bilateral symmetry • Nerve ladder with brain • 3 cell layers – ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm • Mostly parasitic • One opening • Planaria, flukes, tapeworms

  29. Tapeworm - Platyhelminthes

  30. Planarian – Free Living flatworm

  31. Phylum Nematoda - Roundworms • Bilateral symmetry • Tough outer covering - cuticle • Digestive cavity • Can be parasites • First to have body cavity – pseudocoelom • Ex. Roundworms, pinworms, heartworms

  32. Phylum Rotifera - pseudocoelomates • Very small • Pseudocoelom • Crown of cilia for feeding

  33. Nematodes

  34. Phylum Annelida – Segmented Worms • Ringlike segmented bodies • Bilateral symmetry • Tubelike digestive tract • Organ systems • Setae on segments • Dorsal vein • Ventral nervous system • True Coelom • Ex. Earthworms, leeches

  35. Annelids

  36. Annelida Segmented Worms

  37. Phylum Mollusca – Soft bodied invertebrates • Soft bodies with shells • Move with muscular foot • Have a mantle that secretes the shell • Bilateral symmetry • True Coelom 6. Ex. Clams, scallops, squid, octopus, snails, slugs

  38. Mollusca Class Bivalves

  39. Mollusca Class Gastropoda

  40. Mollusca Class Cephalopoda

  41. Phylum Arthropoda - Insects • Segmented • Jointed Appendages • Exoskeleton made of Chitin • Head, thorax, abdomen • Crustaceans – crabs, lobster, shrimps • Millipedes and Centipedes • Insects

  42. Crustaceans

  43. Insects

  44. Protostome and deuterostome development • Protostomes – determinate cleavage where early cells have predetermined fate • Deuterostomes – indeterminate cleavage where early cells can be the whole organism

  45. Echinoderms • Deuterostome development – blastopore becomes the anus • Star fish, brittle stars, sea urchin

  46. Sea Star

  47. Echinoderms

  48. Chordates Lancelets

  49. Tunicate