CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS. Scientists use classification to organize organisms into groups, based on shared or similar traits. Why classify? There are 1.8 million known organisms, so classification makes them easier to study!
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CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS • Scientists use classification to organize organisms into groups, based on shared or similar traits. • Why classify? There are 1.8 million known organisms, so classification makes them easier to study! • How are organisms classified? Organisms that evolved from a common ancestor are grouped more closely together.
7 Levels of Classification • The Kingdom is the broadest level, and contains the largest number of organisms. Species is the most specific group, consisting of a very specific type of organism.
Naming Organisms • Organisms are called by their scientific names, which is the genus and species name. • Example: Ursus Arctos = Brown Bear (Grizzly)
5 Kingdoms • All the organisms on Earth can be broken down into 5 major categories, or Kingdoms: Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Monera (Bacteria), and Protista.
Animal Kingdom • Members of the animal kingdom are made up of many cells. • They are called heterotrophs, meaning they get energy by eating other organisms. • Animals are divided into two large groups: vertebratesand invertebrates.
Members of the plant kingdom are made up of many cells that are surrounded by cell walls. All plants are called autotrophs make their own food through photosynthesis. Some groups of plants are mosses, ferns, conifers and flowering plants. Mosses Ferns Plant Kingdom Conifers Flowering Plants
Single or many celled organisms that reproduce by spores (usually asexual). Fungi are heterotrophs. They get their energy by feeding on living or dead organisms. Examples of one-celled fungi include yeasts and molds. Many-celled fungi include mushrooms, bracket fungi and puffballs. YeastMold Kingdom Fungi Multicellular Fungi
Kingdom Monera • The Kingdom Monera is made up completely of bacteria. • All are single celled, prokaryotes (no nucleus). • Most bacteria are considered heterotrophs because they feed off other organisms. Some rare types of bacteria can do photosynthesis • Bacteria have 3 distinct shapes:
Kingdom Protista • The Protist Kingdom is made up of many one-celled organisms and some simple many-celled organisms. • Some protists, like amoeba and paramecium, are heterotrophs. • Others, like euglena or algae, are autotrophs. amoeba paramecium euglena algae
Taxonomic Trees • Evolutionary relationships between organisms can be shown using a taxonomic tree.
Dichotomous Keys • A dichotomous key helps you identify organisms by presenting you with a series of choices. • The choices describe traits of the organism you are identifying, and eventually lead to the identity of a species.