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Chapter 3 Native Texans

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  1. Chapter 3Native Texans

  2. Section 1Ancient Texans • First peoples migrated from Siberia along the land bridge crossing the Bering Strait • How do we know who the people are or how they got here? • Archaeologists- study evidence of past civilizations • Artifacts- bones, baskets, shells, tools

  3. Hunting for food • Stone Age- 10,000+ years ago • Hunting large animals – mastodon, mammoth, bison • Followed herds of animals • Atlatl • Flint tipped spears • Archaic Age- 8000 years ago • Hunted smaller game, warmer temps, tools of stone and bone. • Hunted and gathered – not so nomadic but still roamed

  4. Hunters to Farmers • Central American Indians first to grow food • 100 AD Texans adopted this method • How does farming change a culture? • Increase in population due to the availability of food • Nomadic living in the past • Villages can grow • Complex societies/governments/religious activities

  5. Cultures Emerge • Cultures- groups of people expressing and conducting themselves • Southeastern • Gulf • Pueblo • Plains

  6. Section 2Southeastern and Gulf Cultures • All early people believed that spirits caused major earth catastrophes as well as the changes in seasons • Humans and animals could communicate • Harmonious with the Earth • Some peaceful by nature some warring

  7. SE farmers and gathersCaddos • 24 groups make up their confederacy • In Texas groups were matrilineal • Government • Headed by 2 leaders • War and peace leader and religious leader • Men and women held positions in govt. • Most productive agriculturally and most numerous • Farmers and great fishermen • Lived in permanent villages- dome shaped • Warring nation

  8. Coahuiltecans • South Texas Plain- nomadic but stayed in the South Texas Plain • Bows and arrows • Hunted javelina, deer, bison, worms lizards and plants when times were tough! • Dried plants to use as flour • Women took care of camp- men hunted • Shamans-people believed to have power to summon spirits… • Many died from European diseases

  9. Where they lived…

  10. Karankawas • Gulf Coast • Built camps and gathered foods and hunted deer, bears and buffalo • Moved to the oceanin the winter • Dugout canoes-prized possession • Made pottery and baskets and they were waterproofed with tar • Mid 1800’s most were dead or displaced by settlers

  11. The Wichita • Prairies and oak timberlands- Dallas/Ft. Worth, Waco and Wichita Falls home • Village dwellers resembled Caddo • Women held positions of leadership • Got along well with FRENCH, but fought all other settlers • Forced to give up lands

  12. Section 3Pueblo and Plains Cultures • Jumanos - plains • Hunting buffalo and trading throughout Texas • Middleman between Eastern Indians and Western Indians • Traded corn, squash for animal skins and meat and pigments and turquoise • Striped face tattoos, unique hair cut

  13. Territories

  14. Jumanos • Some lived close to Rio Grande from El Paso to Big Bend • Farmers- used irrigation • Raised corn, squash beans • Cacti and mesquite beans when times were lean • Homes were large and made of adobe • Fought Apache to keep territory, but Apache won • When Spanish explored Texas they had mostly disappeared

  15. Tiguas • Live in present day El Paso • Matrilineal- home and land belong to wife’s people • Today it is traced thru the males family

  16. Plains Cultures • Plains Indian's life's changed with the introduction of horses • Spaniards introduced horses around 1500 • Became outstanding hunters and warriors • Buffalo played a major part in their lives

  17. Tonkawas • 1600’s arrival- lived by Austin and some in coastal plains • Buffalo was main choice of food, but few roamed in their area. Apaches and Comanches competed for buffalo • Lost many to warring with other nations and white man

  18. Apache • Ancestors from far north • Mescaleros and Lipans lived in Texas • Lipans were warring a nation fighting the Spanish and Comanches • Eventually moved to west Texas to be with Mescaleros

  19. Comanches • Lived in prairies, plateaus and plains of west Texas • Comancheria- their territory- stretched from Mexico, TX, Kansas, OK, Colorado and NM • Divided into groups in which older men lead them and all groups must agree before a decision is made- like a • democracy

  20. Comanche Life • Hunting and war • Bear, elk, antelope, buffalo • Hunters would surround buffalo on horseback forcing them to move in a circle then used bow and arrows to kill • Ate meat and dried it for later – pemmican • Fought to control comancheria and took over Apache land and took enemieshorses- highly prized

  21. Kiowa • Ally-friend- of the Comanche • Teepee- homes of tanned hide easy to move - Plains Indians could move in 30 minutes if they had to. • Valued their homes, horse and buffalo • Buffalo provided everything to the Plains Indians-food, clothing, needles, water bottles (bladders), horns for making spoons and other utensils, glue • Like all other Indian groups they were forced to move to the reservation. • Like all other Indian groups they also had advanced societies and languages and kept histories by painting on buffalo hides