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Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach

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Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach

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  1. Sustaining Terrestrial Biodiversity: The Ecosystem Approach G. Tyler Miller’s Living in the Environment 13th Edition Chapter 23 Dr. Richard Clements Chattanooga State Technical Community College

  2. Key Concepts • Human land use • Types and uses of US public lands • Forests and forest management • Implications of deforestation • Management of parks • Establishment and management of nature preserves • Importance of ecological restoration

  3. Land Use in the World Fig. 23-2 p. 595

  4. Land Use in the United States Rangeland and pasture 29% Fig. 23-3 p. 595

  5. Types of US Public Lands • Multiple-use lands: National Forests; National Resource Lands –Land uses? Mining, logging, oil/gas drilling, atv, hunting, commercial fishing • Moderately-restricted use lands: National Wildlife Refuges – permitted logging and mining, hunting, fishing, camping • Restricted-use lands: National Park System; National Wilderness Preservation System –camping, hiking, highly restricted logging/mining, fishing with permits

  6. US Public Lands Fig. 23-4 p. 596

  7. Managing US Public Land • Biodiversity and ecological function • No subsidies or tax breaks for use • Public should get fair compensation • Users held responsible for actions • Takings and property rights

  8. Managing and Sustaining Forests Ecological Importance of Forests • Food webs and energy flow • Water regulation-removing trees alters water cycle and soil • Water holding capacity • Local and regional climate • Numerous habitats and niches • Air purification

  9. Managing and Sustaining Forests Economic Importance of Forests • Fuelwood (50% of global forest use)- • Developing countries rural use of fuelwood, urban areas use coal but require wood to create • Alternatives are often dung, removes nutrients that would be part of manure, forests are • depleted in circle around urban areas. • Industrial timber and lumber • Pulp and paper-3rd most polluting industry in N. Am. Due to • Chlorine bleaches –water, air, soil pollution • Medicines • Mineral extraction and recreation

  10. Forest Structure Fig. 23-9 p. 601

  11. Types of Forests • Old-growth (frontier) forests • Second-growth forests • Tree farms/plantation Fig. 23-18 p. 609

  12. Forest Management • Rotation cycle • Even-aged management • Industrial forestry • Uneven-aged management • Improved diversity • Sustainable production • Multiple-use

  13. Management Strategies Fig. 23-11 p. 601 Fig. 23-12 p. 602

  14. Logging Roads • Increased erosion and runoff • Habitat fragmentation • Pathways for exotic species • Accessibility to humans Fig. 23-13 p. 602

  15. Harvesting Trees • Selective cutting • High-grading • Shelterwood cutting • Seed-tree cutting • Clearcutting • Strip cutting Fig. 23-14 p. 603

  16. Sustainable Forestry • Longer rotations • Selective or strip cutting • Minimize fragmentation • Improved road building techniques • Certified sustainable grown-ecosystem approach • Pg. 606(See Solutions p. 598)

  17. Pathogens Fungal Diseases • Chestnut blight • Dutch elm disease • Dogwood Anthracnose Insect Pests • Bark beetles • Gypsy moth • Woolly adelgid (hemlock)

  18. Fire Fig. 23-17 p. 607 • Surface fires • Crown fires

  19. Forest Resources and Management in the United States • Habitat for threatened and endangered species • Water purification services • Recreation • 3% of timber harvest • Sustainable yield and multiple use • Substitutes for tree products

  20. Tropical Deforestation • Rapid and increasing • Loss of biodiversity • Cultural extinction • Unsustainable agriculture and ranching • Clearing for cash crop plantations • Commercial logging • Fuelwood

  21. Degradation of Tropical Forests Fig. 23-22 p. 615

  22. Reducing Tropical Deforestation • Identification of critical ecosystems • Reducing poverty and population growth • Sustainable tropical agriculture • Encourage protection of large tracts- government • policies • Debt-for-nature swaps • Less destructive harvesting methods

  23. The Fuelwood Crisis • Planting fast-growing fuelwood plants • Burning wood more efficiently • Switching to other fuels= cheap and easy to construct solar • ovens Fig. 23-25 p. 618

  24. Managing and Sustaining National Parks • Most parks are too small to maintain biodiversity • Invasion by exotic species • Popularity a major problem-since end of WWII • Traffic jams and air pollution • Visitor impact (noise) • Natural regulation • Better pay for park staff

  25. Establishing, Designing, and Managing Nature Reserves • Include some moderate disturbance • Sustain natural ecological processes • Protect most important areas • Buffer zones • Gap analysis See Solutions p. 625 • Wilderness areas

  26. Ecological Restoration • Ecological restoration • Restoration ecology • Rehabilitation See Individuals Matter p. 630 • Replacement • Creating artificial ecosystems • Natural restoration