Fats and Oils
1. Fat Is… • The most CONCENTRATED source of food energy • There are 9 calories in every gram of fat • We should EAT SPARINGLY from the Fats & Oils Food Group
2. Fats that are LIQUID at room temperature are called OILS. (Examples: vegetable oil, canola oil, olive oil, etc.)
3. Fats that are SOLID or firm at room temperature are called FATS. (Examples: lard, butter, shortening, etc.)
4. Cholesterol Is… • Cholesterol is NOT fat. • It is a “FAT-LIKE” substance present in all body cells that is needed for many ESSENTIAL body processes. • It contributes to the DIGESTION OF FAT and the skin’s production of VITAMIN D. • Adults MANUFACTURE all the cholesterol they need, mostly in the liver. • All ANIMALS also have the ability to manufacture cholesterol.
5. Cholesterol In Foods: • Because all animals make cholesterol, if you eat any animal product, including MEAT, POULTRY and FISH, you will be consuming some “extra” or unneeded cholesterol. • Other foods high in cholesterol are: • Egg Yolks • Liver / Organ Meats • Some Shellfish
6. LDL’s and HDL’s: • A certain amount of cholesterol CIRCULATES in the blood. It does not float through the bloodstream on its own, but in chemical “packages” called LIPOPROTEINS. There are two major kinds of lipoproteins: • LDL’s (Low-Density Lipoprotein) • HDL’s (High-Density Lipoprotein)
7. Low-Density Lipoproteins:“Losers” • Takes cholesterol FROM the LIVER to wherever it is needed in the body. • If too much LDL cholesterol is circulating, the EXCESS amounts of cholesterol can BUILDUP in ARTERY walls. • This buildup INCRESEASES the risk of HEARTDISEASE or STROKE. • Thus, LDL cholesterol has come to be known as “BAD CHOLESTEROL.”
8. LDL’s are like the “Delivery Men.” When LDL’s have too much cholesterol to cart around, it builds up in the arteries and starts to clog them up.
9. High-Density Lipoproteins:“Heroes” • Picks up excess cholesterol and takes it BACK to the LIVER, keeping it from causing harm. • Thus, HDL cholesterol has come to be known as “GOODCHOLESTEROL.”
10. HDL’s are like the “Garbage Men.” The HDL’s go around and pick up all the excess cholesterol clogging up the arteries and take it back to the liver.
11. For most people, the AMOUNTS and TYPES of fats eaten have a GREATER effect on blood cholesterol than does the cholesterol itself. 12. The fats found in food, such as butter, chicken fat, or corn oil, are made up of different combinations of FATTY ACIDS.
13. Types of Fat: • Fatty Acids: • ORGANIC ACID UNITS that make up fat. There are three types… • Saturated • Polyunsaturated • Monounsaturated
14. Saturated Fatty Acids • Raises LDL’s • Raises HDL’s • Food Sources: • Meat / Animal Sources • Poultry Skin • Whole Milk & Dairy Products • Butter • Shortening • Tropical Oils-(Coconut Oil, Palm Oil, and Palm Kernel Oil) *Although tropical oils are liquid, they contain a high percentage of saturated fatty acids.
15. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids • Lowers LDL’s • Lowers HDL’s • Food sources: • Most Vegetable Oils • Corn Oil • Soybean Oil • Safflower Oil
16. Monounsaturated Fatty AcidsThe BEST One To Have! • Lowers LDL’s • Raises HDL’s • Food sources: • Olives • Olive Oil • Avocados • Peanuts • Peanut Oil • Canola Oil
17. All fats include ALL3 kinds of fatty acids, but in varying amounts.
18. A Good Rule of Thumb… • Fats that are SOLID at room temperature are made up mainly of SATURATED fatty acids. • Fats that are LIQUID at room temperature are made up mainly ofUNSATURATED fatty acids.
19. Hydrogenation Is: • The process in which missing HYDROGENATOMS are added to an unsaturated fat to make it FIRMER in texture. • (It turns liquid oil into solid shortening)
Hydrogenation, cont. b. This forms a new type of fatty acid called trans-fatty acid, (“man-made” fat). c. Trans-fatty acids have many of the same properties as SATURATED fats.
20. Visible Fat: • Fat that is easily seen • Examples: Butter on a baked potato, layer of fat around a pork chop, etc.
21. Invisible Fat: • Fat that cannot be detected by the eye (fat that is found naturally in food) • Examples: whole milk, some cheese, egg yolks, nuts, avocados, etc.
22. Functions of Fat: a. Carries Vitamins K, A, D and E through the body This is KADE… (Get it?!?) K, A, D and E are the four FAT-SOLUBLE Vitamins. (This means they dissolve in fat.) The FAT car picks up KADE and takes him where he needs to go in the body. FAT Car
Functions of Fat b. Provides a RESERVE store of energy. *Remember, your body wants carbohydrates as its number one energy source. But, if it can’t get carbs, it will use fat because it has the next highest ratio of calories per gram!
Functions of Fat c. Promotes healthy skin d. Promotes normal cellgrowth e. Acts like a “cushion” and heat regulator to protect your heart, liver and other vital organs (Imagine what would happen to a football player if all he had protecting his organs was a thin layer of skin!)
Functions of Fat f. Insulates your body (Keeps your warm, or cools you down) g. Satisfies hunger and helps you feel full longer h. Adds flavor to food
23. Too Much Fat… • Americans eat not only too much fat, but the wrong kinds of fat! Doing so can increase the risks for serious health CONCERNS and ILLNESSES.
24. High fat diets are linked to: • Increased Cholesterol • Heart Disease • Obesity • Cardiovascular Related Problems
25. Lowering Fat and Cholesterol in the Diet: • Exercise! • Replace saturated fats with unsaturated fats in the diet • Choose lean cuts of meat • Steam, boil or bake foods instead of cooking them in oil or fat • Many more!!