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The Great West & Gilded Age

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The Great West & Gilded Age

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  1. The Great West & Gilded Age American History II - Unit 1

  2. Review • How was Social Darwinism reflected in the wealth gap between the rich and the poor? • “survival of the fittest” – rich believed the poor were poor because they were not as fit to survive and prosper • In what ways were laborers suffering in the workplace? • Low wages, long hours, dangerous conditions, child labor, no time off, sweatshop tenements didn’t adhere to labor laws • What are some ways in which labor unions tried to achieve their demands? • Collective bargaining, arbitration, and strikes • Why did socialism appeal to some laborers? • Government owned businesses wouldn’t ignore laws and conditions might be better • Government could ensure equal distribution of pay in society • How did businesses manipulate the Interstate Commerce Act and the Sherman Antitrust Act to end labor strikes? • Claim strikes were interfering with interstate trade, therefore the government had to end the strike to restore free trade

  3. 1.5 – Immigration & Urbanization https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dlOG6VMLKfM

  4. 1900s Immigrants: Who? 1901-1910 • Immigration – the action of coming to live permanently in a foreign country • East Coast (Ellis Island) • Old Europeans – Western Europe • New Europeans – South and Eastern Europe • West Coast (Angel Island and Hawaii) • Asians – Chinese and Japanese • Mexican, Cuban, Jamaican • “Birds of Passage” – make $ and then return home

  5. 1900s Immigrants: Why? Push Factors Pull Factors Job opportunities and higher wages Sense of independence • Religious persecution (Jews) • Rising populations • Job and food scarcity • High taxes

  6. The Journey • By steamship, mostly in steerage (cargo) • 1 week from Europe • 3 weeks from Asia • Ellis Island, NY and Angel Island, CA • Immigration stations to receive immigrants for processing • 5+ hours • Pass physical exam (diseases, serious health issues, etc) • Documents checked by gov’t inspector (no felonies, able to work, had at least $25) • Only 2% denied entrance, but many were detained in filthy facilities while being processed

  7. Settling In America • Immigrants faced many challenges. • English language • Place to live • Job • Cultural clashes • Many joined ethnic communities  lifelines for immigrants

  8. Nativism Increases • Many immigrants formed hyphenated American identities and assimilated to an extent while keeping many cultural beliefs  increase in American nativism – favoring native-born citizens, anti-immigrant beliefs • Favored immigrants – Old Europeans, protestant, white • Disliked immigrants – New Europeans, Catholic or Jewish, Asian and Pacific

  9. Anti-Immigrant Legislation • 1896 –Congress passed a bill requiring literacy tests for immigrants BUT POTUS Cleveland vetoed the bill • >40 words in English and/or native language  denied entry • Similar bill passed in 1917 • Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 – banned entry of Chinese immigrants EXCEPT educated and upper class professions • Not repealed until 1943 • Gentlemen’s Agreement – 1907-08, US wouldn’t impose official immigration restrictions on Japanese, in return for Japan limiting the emigration of Japanese • Did not include Japanese immigration to Hawaii

  10. Challenges of Urbanizationhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LxnlA-yAB7o • Urbanization – growth of cities • Immigrants, southerners, westerners moved to cities  easier to find jobs • Growth of the Americanization movement – social movement to assimilate immigrants into American culture • Sponsored and funded by gov’t and citizen organizations • Teach skills needed for citizenship – English literacy, American history, government/politics • Teach cultural skills – cooking, etiquette • Met by mixed immigrant sentiments – didn’t want to leave behind many cultural practices and ethnic neighborhoods didn’t require knowledge of English language or US customs

  11. Urban Problems • Housing – lived in tenements (small apartments) • Often 1+ families, unsanitary, cramped, made into sweatshops • Transportation – mass transit  street cars could move many people along fixed routes, ill-kept • Water – usually no indoor plumbing, cholera and typhoid fever, early filtration and chlorination systems by 1910 • Sanitation – no dependable trash collection, build up of trash, manure, and sewage in streets; increased air pollution

  12. Urban Problems • Crime – increased pickpockets and theft; NYC organized 1st salaried police force but it was not very effective • Fire – candles and kerosene lamps + wooden dwellings + lack of water supply  large scale fires in almost every big city in the late 1800s Great Chicago Fire, 1871, burned for 29 hours, destroyed 1/3 of Chicago San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, burned for 4 days

  13. Reformers Mobilize • Social Gospel Movement – religious movement preaching salvation through helping the poor • Settlement houses – community centers that provided help to the local poor • Educational, social, cultural, and health services • Jane Addams – established Hull House settlement house in Chicago

  14. Reformers Mobilize • Jacob Riis – wrote and photographed How the Other Half Lives: Studies Among the Tenements of New York (1890) • Riis – Danish immigrant, couldn’t find work • Documented the living and working conditions of urban life to raise awareness and hopefully spur change • Blamed the apathy of the wealthy classes for NYC slums • Basis for muckraking journalism (Unit 2…)