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Objective 2…TAKS 10 th and 11 th grades Home slide. Home. Questions from TAKS regarding cell functions :. Questions from TAKS regarding DNA:. Questions from TAKS regarding genetics. Questions from TAKS regarding classification. Questions from TAKS regarding body systems.

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objective 2 taks 10 th and 11 th grades home slide
Objective 2…TAKS 10th and 11th grades Home slide

Home

Questions from TAKS regarding cell functions :

Questions from TAKS regarding DNA:

Questions from TAKS regarding genetics

Questions from TAKS regarding classification

Questions from TAKS regarding body systems

Interactive non-TAKS quizzes on the internet

Link to 10th grade study guide

Scroll to p.265 for objective 2

Link to 11th grade study guide

Scroll to p.310 for objective 2

cell functions
Cell functions

Home

Back to Cell functions

Go to: Osmosis

Go to: Cell Energy and parts

Go to: Cell division

slide5

When a sea urchin egg is removed from the ocean and placed in freshwater, the egg swells and bursts. Which of these causes water to enter the egg?

F Coagulation

G Sodium pump

H Active transport

J Osmosis

Back to Cell functions

Home

Osmosis is the movement of water through a membrane from cleaner “high concentration”

toless clean “lower concentration”.

Ocean water (because of its salt) is the lower concentration.

Freshwater (less salt) is the high concentration.

34

slide6

Back to Cell functions

Home

Real

histamine

4. Histamine is a polar chemical that can lead to an allergic response when it is released by the body’s immune system. An antihistamine is a drug that can help prevent the allergic reactions associated with histamine. An antihistamine is a similar molecule to histamine in size, shape, and polarity. How does an antihistamine most likely prevent the effects of histamine?

A It increases the diffusion of histamine across the membranes of target cells.

B It binds to histamine receptors on the surfaces of target cells.

C It causes target cells to increase production of histamine receptors.

D It blocks histamine receptors found in the cytoplasm of target cells.

Model

histamine

antihistamine

slide8

Back to Cell functions

Home

Which would most

likely cause the liquid in Tube A to rise?

F Starch concentrations being equal on each side of the membrane

G Water passing from a region of lower starch concentration to one of higher starch concentration

H Water and starch volumes being the same

J Solute in the tubes changing from a higher temperature to a lower temperature

Starch is a solute.

Osmosis is when ‘cleaner water’ (in this case ‘distilled’) wants to go through a membrane to ‘less clean water’ (in this case, ‘starchy’).

Tube B water goes through the Dialysis membrane toward the Tube A.

Water goes from high concentration to low concentration. Or if you want to look at it from the solute point of view…the water goes from ‘less solute solution’ to ‘more solute solution.’

The solute (starch) doesn’t go through this membrane.

14

slide9

Back to Cell functions

Home

The illustration above shows a cell model with starch solutions both inside and outside the cell. In which of the following situations will the solution rise highest in the tube?

slide10

Back to Cell functions

Home

Which molecule provides most of the energy used to drive chemical reactions in cells?

F DNA

G RNA

H ATP

J ADP

30

slide12

Energy conversion within an animal cell would be severely limited by removal of the

cell’s —

A mitochondria

B chloroplasts

C plastids

D lysosomes

Back to Cell functions

Home

Mitochondria use oxygen and sugar to

recharge ADP’s into ATP’s (cell energy source.)

Animal cells don’t have chloroplasts. Plants do.

Animal cells don’t have plastids (for photosynthesis.)

Lysosomes help with digestion of food & recycling.

27

slide13

Why are photosynthesis and cellular respiration often considered opposites?

F Photosynthesis produces twice as many ATP molecules as cellular respiration

does.

G Water is released during photosynthesis and consumed during cellular respiration.

H Photosynthesis occurs during the day, and cellular respiration occurs at night.

J Oxygen is produced during photosynthesis and used during cellular respiration.

Back to Cell functions

Home

Respiration produces more ATP’s than photosynthesis.

FALSE.

Respiration occurs at all times.

18

slide14

Which structure regulates gas exchange

during the processes of photosynthesis and respiration?

A Q

B R

C S

D T

Back to Cell functions

Home

Gases go in here!

O2

CO2

11

slide15

Back to Cell functions

Home

Amino acids are the units of proteins,

Lipids are fats.

Your stomach adds the HCl to the food.

Food provides the human body with all of the

following except —

F calories

G amino acid

H hydrochloric acid

J lipids

8

slide16

Back to Cell functions

Home

DNA molecules separate into single strands, which are then used to construct two identical strands of DNA. This process ensures that the —

A cytoplasm is in equilibrium

B mitochondria are genetically identical to

the chloroplasts

C parent cells use little ATP

D daughter cells are genetically identical to

the parent cells

21

slide17

If a cat has 38 chromosomes in each of its body cells, how many chromosomes will be in each daughter cell after mitosis?

F 11

G 19

H 38

J 76

Back to Cell functions

Home

If it said “after meiosis” then you would half the number.

26

slide18
DNA

Home

Back to DNA

Go to: DNA

Go to: Protein Synthesis

Go to: Mutations

slide19

In DNA, which of the following determines the traits of an organism?

F Amount of adenine

G Number of sugars

H Sequence of nitrogen bases

J Strength of hydrogen bonds

Home

Back to DNA

38

slide20

Home

Back to DNA

Which molecule is most responsible for

determining an organism’s eye color, body

structure, and cellular enzyme production?

A Complex starch

B Fatty acid

C Carbohydrate

D Deoxyribonucleic acid

DNA

45

slide21

Home

Back to DNA

All of the following are found in a DNA

molecule except —

A carbon dioxide

B deoxyribose

C nitrogen

D phosphate

The sugar of DNA

The A’s, T’s, C’s, G’s of DNA

Part of the backbone of DNA

The nitrogenous bases of DNA

The rails of the ladder

33

slide22

Home

Back to DNA

slide23

Home

Back to DNA

Which of the following nucleotide base

sequences complements the section of DNA

modeled above?

F 5′UTCGCA3′

G

H 5′GCGATT3′

J 5′TTUCGC3′

5′TTAGCG3′

A’s go to T’s.

C’s go to G’s.

36

slide25

Home

Back to DNA

This chart shows the results of an experiment performed in the 1920s using a bacterial species that causes pneumonia in humans. The experiment involved several procedures using two different bacterial strains, R and S. What is a possible explanation for the results in Group 2?

A Living S-strain bacteria can transform into a pathogenic form of R-strain bacteria.

B Living R-strain bacteria are controlled by a mouse’s immune system.

C Dead S-strain bacteria can cause disease.

D Dead R-strain bacteria can confer resistance to S-strain bacteria.

9

slide26

Home

Back to DNA

slide27

Which of the following best describes the question this set of procedures was designed to answer?

A Can a substance from dead bacteria transform living bacteria?

B Can R bacterial cells survive heating?

C Can dead bacterial cells confer immunity to a living host?

D Can bacterial cells be isolated from a healthy host?

Home

Back to DNA

25

transcription messenger rna m rna copies the dna code for the protein that needs to be made

Home

 Transcription:messenger RNA (m-RNA) copies the DNA code for the protein that needs to be made.

Back to DNA

DNA passes information to RNA during the

process of —

F transcription

G active transport

H regeneration

J osmosis

m -RNA

DNA

34

slide29

If the template of a strand of DNA is 5' AGATGCATC 3', the complementary strand

will be —

F 3' TCTACGTAG 5'

G 5' CTACGTAGA 3'

H 3' AGATGCATC 5'

J 5' AGACGTCTA 3'

Home

Back to DNA

5' AGATGCATC 3',

Both are DNA. No “U’s”.

A’s go to T’s. C’s go to G’s.

24

slide30

Which of these represents the DNA segment from which this section of mRNA was transcribed?

A

B TCUTTG

C GAAUCU

D UCCTGA

Home

Back to DNA

DNA A T C G

mRNA U A G C

ACTAAG

33

slide31

Home

Back to DNA

slide32

Home

Back to DNA

slide33

Home

Back to DNA

The assembly of a messenger RNA strand that normally begins with UAC has been changed so that the newly assembled messenger RNA strand begins with UAG. Which of the following will most likely occur?

A The protein will be missing the first amino acid.

B The amino acids that make up the protein will all be different.

C The mRNA will become attached to a ribosome.

D The production of the protein will be stopped.

27

slide34

Home

Back to DNA

slide35

Home

G

A

A

AGA

Back to DNA

Use this chart for the next question.

slide36

Home

Back to DNA

Mutated has one substitution.

normal

The chain above represents three codons. Which of the following changes would be expected in the amino acid chain if the mutation shown above occurred?

F The amino acid sequence would be shorter than expected.

G The identity of one amino acid would change.

H The amino acid sequence would remain unchanged.

J The identities of more than one amino acid would change.

Only if there had been a deletion of 3 or more letters.

AGA codes for arginine, and ACA codes for threonine.

AGA codes for arginine, and ACA codes for threonine.

This can happen

when only one or two letters are added or deleted.

26

slide37

Mutations in DNA molecules can occur when —

F replication of DNA is exact

G a DNA enzyme attaches to an

RNA codon

H RNA codons are replaced by

DNA nucleotides

J a change occurs in DNA

nucleotide bases

Home

Back to DNA

Replication

22

slide38

Home

Back to DNA

slide39

Home

Ultraviolet radiation can cause mutations in

the DNA of skin cells that have been

overexposed to the sun. This mutated DNA

has no effect on future offspring because —

F changes in skin cell DNA are homozygous recessive

G mutations must occur within the RNA

codons

H offspring reject parental skin cells

J only changes to gamete DNA can be

inherited

Back to DNA

26

genetics and heredity
Genetics and Heredity

Back to genetics

Home

slide41

Back to genetics

Home

Dad = GgBb and Mom = ggBB

Definitely mom will give all offspring a “B”

for green eyes.

According to the table, which of the following phenotypes would probably occur in all the offspring from the parents shown above?

F Solid gray fur

G Striped gray fur

H Green eyes

J Blue eyes

40

slide42

Back to genetics

Home

RrSsTtUu

24 = 16

Rr

21 = 2

RrSs RrSsTt

22 = 4 23 = 8

If an organism has the genotype RrSsTtUu, what proportion of its gametes will be RSTU?

●½,

●¼,

●1/8,

●1/16.

slide43

Back to genetics

Home

What is a probable reason why increased uses of anitbiotics

are causing more bacteria to be resistant to those antibiotics?

A The bacteria get used to an antibiotic.

B There are always individuals in a population that

were created resistant. Those individuals

and their clones are outnumbering the non-resistant strains.

slide44

Back to genetics

Home

A pea plant with the genotype TtWW is

crossed with a pea plant with the genotype

ttWw. How many different genotypes can be

expressed in the offspring?

F 1

G 2

H 3

J 4

TW

tW

tW

tw

46

slide46

What trait will most likely be observed in all

offspring of the above set of parents?

A Green feathers

B Yellow feathers

C Long beak

D Short beak

Back to genetics

Home

The male will ensure that all the offspring green.

Half the offspring will be carriers for yellow.

Half the offspring will have long beaks but will be carriers for short.

The other half of the offspring will have short beaks.

53

slide48

Home

Back to genetics

slide50

Coat color in mice varies greatly, ranging

from black to grizzly gray, black-and-white,

spotted, or white. The nucleus from a body cell of a grizzly-gray mouse is fused with an egg from a black mouse from which the nucleus has been removed. The egg begins to divide and is then transplanted into a female white mouse. What will be the most likely coat color of the offspring?

F Black

G Black with white spots

H Grizzly gray

J White

Home

Back to genetics

Egg and sperm from black mice.

Grizzly-gray DNA added

Black mouse

fertilized egg’s DNA removed.

36

slide51

The diagram represents the chromosomes of a person with a genetic disorder caused by nondisjunction, in which the chromosomes fail to separate properly. Which chromosome set displays nondisjunction?

F 2

G 8

H 21

J 23

Home

Back to genetics

There should be 2 chromosomes

(one from the egg and one from the sperm)

in all the 23 spots.

There are 3 chromosomes instead of two.

22

classification

Home

Classification

Back to

classification

Go to: Naming

Go to: Kingdoms

slide53

The bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana, is most closely related to the —

F spotted chorus frog, Pseudacris

clarki

G Asian flying frog, Polypedates

leucomystax

H northern leopard frog, Rana

pipiens

J African bullfrog, Pyxicephalus

adspersus

Home

Back to

classification

Things in the same genus are related to each other.

12

slide54

Which of these classifications is most specific?

A Family

B Genus

C Phylum

D Order

Home

Back to

classification

K, P, C, O, F, G, S

49

slide55

Home

Back to

classification

slide56

Dogs (Canis familiaris) are most closely related genetically to which of the following organisms?

A African hunting dog (Lycaon

pictus)

B Gray wolf (Canis lupus)

C Grizzly bear (Ursus arctos)

D Domestic cat (Felis catus)

Home

Back to

classification

Organisms in the same genus are closely related.

1

slide57

A laboratory investigation included examining prepared slides of pond water. Single-celled organisms with a nucleus and either cilia or flagella were visible. These organisms probably belong to the kingdom —

F Animalia

G Fungi

H Plantae

J Protista

Home

Back to

classification

These 3 kingdoms are normally multicellular, though there are some unicellular fungi, but the fungi would not have cilia or flagella.

4

slide58

Home

Back to

classification

One characteristic shared by a virus and a living cell is that both —

F store genetic information in nucleic acids

G have a crystalline structure

H gain energy directly from the sun

J use glucose for respiration

42

slide59

Which of the following factors helps spread disease-causing bacteria?

F Low temperatures

G Access to new hosts

H Mutation by heat energy

J Availability of light

Parasites need a method of traveling

from one host to another to continue their species.

Home

Back to

classification

14

slide60

Home

Back to

classification

This organism most likely is a member of

which kingdom?

F Eubacteria

G Protista

H Animalia

J Plantae

Single cell with nucleus

32

slide61

The kingdom Animalia includes all of these except —

A jellyfish

B sponges

C amoebas

D roundworms

Home

Back to

classification

Protista

31

slide62

Back to

classification

Home

slide63

Multicellular eukaryotes that are usually mobile and obtain food from other organisms probably belong to the kingdom —

A Plantae

B Fungi

C Animalia

D Protista

Home

Back to

classification

Multicellular, but make their own food.

Multicellular fungi are not mobile.

Unicellular usually.

37

slide64

Home

Some zooplankton belong to the kingdom

Protista. Members of this kingdom are

characterized as —

A having segmented bodies with jointed

appendages

B containing one or more eukaryotic cells

C laying eggs with a leathery protective shell

D having a four-chambered heart

Back to

classification

Kingdom Protista is mostly unicellular eukaryotes,

with some multicellular plantlike organisms.

17

slide65
Some bacteria thrive in hostile environments, such as salt flats, boiling-hot springs, and carbonate-rock interiors, primarily because of bacteria’s —

F biochemical diversity

G small sizes

H round shapes

J methods of movement

Home

Back to

classification

Diversity means ‘differences’.

2

slide66

Home

Back to

classification

Square cell

Nucleus

Walls

Chloroplasts

Big center vacuole of water.

The cell above most likely belongs to an organism of the kingdom —

F Animalia

G Plantae

H Fungi

J Eubacteria

38

slide67

Compared to annual rings of trees that have experienced years of sufficient rainfall, the

annual rings of trees that have experienced a dry period will —

F be softer

G grow at a faster rate

H be thinner

J photosynthesize at a faster rate

Home

Back to

classification

52

slide68

The diagram illustrates the parts of this flower. Which of these parts are not directly involved in sexual reproduction?

A Stigma and style

B Sepal and pedicel

C Anther and filament

D Receptacle and ovary

Back to

classification

Home

3

slide69

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classification

slide70

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classification

slide71

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classification

Home

slide72

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classification

slide73

Home

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classification

This animal most likely belongs to phylum

A Porifera

B Annelida

C Mollusca

D Arthropoda

This animal is segmented but these

are NOT jointed legs.

53

body systems

Home

Body systems

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systems

slide75

Home

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systems

slide76

Nutrients from digested food move from the digestive system directly into the —

A circulatory system

B integumentary system

C excretory system

D endocrine system

Home

Back to

systems

Blood

Skin/hair/nails

Urine/kidneys

Hormones

29

slide77

Home

Back to

systems

Which system of the body would be directly

affected if a large number of T cells were

attacked by a virus?

A Cardiovascular system

B Immune system

C Endocrine system

D Respiratory system

Blood and heart

White blood cells

Hormones

Breathing/lungs

41

slide78

Home

Back to

systems

The diagram represents a human arm. Which structure is most responsible for moving the arm to a straighter position?

A Tendons of origin

B Biceps

C Radius

D Triceps

When a muscle contracts,

it gets shorter.

29

slide79

A portion of the human excretory system is represented in the diagram. The order in which urine flows through the system is —

F urethra → bladder → ureter → kidney

G ureter → kidney → bladder → urethra

H kidney → ureter → bladder → urethra

J bladder → urethra → kidney → ureter

Home

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systems

Ureter

Urethra

16

slide80

Which structure in the upper arm is responsible for raising the lower arm?

A 1

B 2

C 3

D 4

1. Anchor of a muscle.

Home

Back to

systems

2. Tendons of a muscle.

3. Muscle that gets shorter.

4. Anchor of the muscle.

17

slide81

Home

Back to

systems

Your arms and legs are limbs.

You extend (move) your limbs when your muscles contract.

Which of the following is directly caused by

muscle action?

F Regeneration of nerves

G Healing of wounds

H Release of hormones

J Extension of limbs

6

slide82

Which system is responsible for producing enzymes that aid in breaking down substances to be absorbed for the body’s growth and repair?

F Digestive system

G Reproductive system

H Respiratory system

J Skeletal system

Home

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systems

Makes food small enough to be absorbed by blood and needful cells.

Makes gametes and sometimes nourishment for the young.

Place of exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Place of mineral storage, blood cell production, muscle attachment, protection of organs, means of mobility.

48

slide83

Home

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systems

A ruler placed between one student’s fingers and thumb is released without warning. A second student catches the ruler. The distance the ruler falls is recorded. This experiment is most likely designed to determine the —

F effects of stress on the first student’s heart rate

G acceleration of the ruler during its fall

H second student’s reaction time to a stimulus

J force applied on a falling mass

46

slide84

The medulla, part of the brain stem, reacts quickly to increased levels of CO2 in the blood and stimulates a response from the —

A excretory system

B immune system

C respiratory system

D integumentary system

Home

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systems

The kidneys react to other wastes in blood.

The white blood cells react to pathogens.

The lungs react to the muscles which react to the brain.

The skin reacts to the hypothalamus(themostat.)

25

slide85

Home

Back to

systems

Which body system is directly responsible for delivering nutrients to cells throughout the body?

A Circulatory system

B Integumentary system

C Endocrine system

D Respiratory system

47

slide86

All of the following symptoms are likely associated with bacterial infection except —

F skin rashes or lesions

G elevated body temperature

H swollen glands or tissues

J increased red blood cell count

Home

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systems

All 3 of these things can happen when you are fighting a bacterial infection.

You build more white blood cells in response to infections,

NOT red blood cells.

18

slide87

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systems

slide88

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systems

slide89

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systems

slide90

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systems

slide91

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systems

slide92

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systems

Endocrine cells of a gland

skeletal cells in a bone

Muscle cells on a bone

In the diagram above, one cell creates and

releases chemicals that travel to a second cell

and quickly induce that cell into action. This

diagram represents part of the —

A endocrine system

B skeletal system

C muscular system

D nervous system

51

slide93

When a person is frightened by a wild animal, some organ systems immediately become active, while others are suppressed. Which of these systems is likely to be suppressed?

F Muscular system

G Respiratory system

H Endocrine system

J Digestive system

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systems

Hormones

28

slide94

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systems

slide95

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systems