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TAKS Objective 1. Coach Smith Waco High Chemistry 2006-2007. Objective 1. WHAT TIME OF DAY ARE YOU MOST ALERT? Assumption: The ability to sort playing cards is an indication of alertness. Procedure: Shuffle a deck of playing cards four times.

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TAKS Objective 1

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1. TAKS Objective 1 Coach Smith Waco High Chemistry 2006-2007

2. Objective 1 • WHAT TIME OF DAY ARE YOU MOST ALERT? • Assumption: The ability to sort playing cards is an indication of alertness. • Procedure: • Shuffle a deck of playing cards four times. • Time how long it takes to sort the cards into four suits. • Repeat the activity at the same times for two days. Data • Which of the following conclusions is supported by these data? • Alertness is directly related to level of distraction. • Shuffling methods can affect alertness • Alertness levels vary during the day. • Long periods of rest improve alertness.

3. WHAT TIME OF DAY ARE YOU MOST ALERT? • Assumption: The ability to sort playing cards is an indication of alertness. • Procedure: • Shuffle a deck of playing cards four times. • Time how long it takes to sort the cards into four suits. • Repeat the activity at the same times for two days. Data • Which of the following conclusions is supported by these data? • Alertness levels vary during the day.

4. Objective 1 Beaker 1 (10 cm from light) Beaker 2 (50 cm) Beaker 3 (90 cm) • The picture shows and experiment designed to investigate biochemical activity in a water plant in a dark room. Over time, bubbles can be easily observed and counted as they escape from the funnel. The number of bubbles is an indicator of the rate of photosynthesis. Which of these data tables best reflects the expected results of this experiment? A. B. C. D.

5. Beaker 1 (10 cm from light) Beaker 2 (50 cm) Beaker 3 (90 cm) • The picture shows and experiment designed to investigate biochemical activity in a water plant in a dark room. Over time, bubbles can be easily observed and counted as they escape from the funnel. The number of bubbles is an indicator of the rate of photosynthesis. Which of these data tables best reflects the expected results of this experiment? D.

6. Objective 1 A De-Icing Experiment Some species of plants that commonly grow near roadways are used in an experiment. The plant species are divided into control groups and experimental groups. All groups are grown under identical conditions except that the experimental groups are given daily applications of a de-icing solution that is used on roadways in winter. At the end of one month, the growth of the control and experimental groups is compared. • Which of the following is the most likely hypothesis for the experiment described above? • Vegetation that grows near roadways requires more water than vegetation in other areas. • De-icing solution causes roadways to have more space for vegetation. • Vegetation near roadways changes the effectiveness of de-icing solution. • De-icing solution affects some types of vegetation that grow near roadways.

7. A De-Icing Experiment Some species of plants that commonly grow near roadways are used in an experiment. The plant species are divided into control groups and experimental groups. All groups are grown under identical conditions except that the experimental groups are given daily applications of a de-icing solution that is used on roadways in winter. At the end of one month, the growth of the control and experimental groups is compared. • Which of the following is the most likely hypothesis for the experiment described above? • De-icing solution affects some types of vegetation that grow near roadways.

8. Objective 1 • The graph compares absenteeism of elementary school students who wash their hands properly with absenteeism of students who fail to wash their hands properly. Which inference could best be supported by these data? • Proper hand washing may increase attendance among elementary school students. • Older students have developed better hand washing habits than younger students. • Some elementary school classes teach correct hand-washing methods to students. • Improper hand washing is a common practice among most elementary school students. Days Absent (per student) Students washing hands correctly Students not washing hands correctly

9. The graph compares absenteeism of elementary school students who wash their hands properly with absenteeism of students who fail to wash their hands properly. Which inference could best be supported by these data? • Proper hand washing may increase attendance among elementary school students. Days Absent (per student) Students washing hands correctly Students not washing hands correctly

10. Objective 1 • This picture indicates that the chemical represented is – • Pressurized • Corrosive • Flammable • Toxic

11. This picture indicates that the chemical represented is – • Corrosive

12. Experimental Preparation Experiment Objective 1 Start = 0 minutes Finish = 0 minutes • After 15 minutes the food coloring in Beaker A is evenly spread throughout the beaker, while Beaker B contains a thin layer of food coloring only at its bottom. These observations support the theory that convection currents in a fluid form more quickly if the fluid has – • Warmer layers at the bottom • A covering on its surface • Reduced pressure on the bottom • Contact with a cooler surface

13. Experimental Preparation Experiment Start = 0 minutes Finish = 0 minutes • After 15 minutes the food coloring in Beaker A is evenly spread throughout the beaker, while Beaker B contains a thin layer of food coloring only at its bottom. These observations support the theory that convection currents in a fluid form more quickly if the fluid has – • Warmer layers at the bottom

14. Objective 1 Research shows that levels of a certain protein are elevated in the blood of people with a bacterial infection. People with a viral infection show only trace amounts of the protein. The level of the protein can be determined in about an hour after a blood test. • Which of these is a benefit of knowing whether a person with a respiratory infection has an elevated level of this protein in the blood? • A set of aerobic exercises can be recommended. • A diet of essential nutrients can be recommended. • A decision can be made abuot whether to take an x-ray. • A decision can be made about whether to use antibiotics.

15. Research shows that levels of a certain protein are elevated in the blood of people with a bacterial infection. People with a viral infection show only trace amounts of the protein. The level of the protein can be determined in about an hour after a blood test. • Which of these is a benefit of knowing whether a person with a respiratory infection has an elevated level of this protein in the blood? • A decision can be made about whether to use antibiotics.

16. Objective 1 • Two students measured the length of the same stick, each using a different 30 cm ruler. One student reported a length of 22 cm, and the other reported a length of 8 cm. The most likely explanation for the difference in the reported values is that one – • Student improperly read the ruler. • Ruler was metal and the other ruler was plastic. • Student viewed the ruler from a different angle. • Ruler was constructed with nonstandard cm marks.

17. Two students measured the length of the same stick, each using a different 30 cm ruler. One student reported a length of 22 cm, and the other reported a length of 8 cm. The most likely explanation for the difference in the reported values is that one – • Student improperly read the ruler.

18. Objective 1 The following hypothesis refers to iron in the topsoil found on an island formed from limestone. Hypothesis:Much of the iron found in the topsoil of the island was carried from Africa by huge dust clouds. • Which study would most likely be used to investigate this hypothesis? • Tracking dust clouds with satellite photos. • Determining the effects of iron on limestone. • Calculating erosion rates in African limestone mines. • Analyzing the content of comet dust clouds.

19. The following hypothesis refers to iron in the topsoil found on an island formed from limestone. Hypothesis:Much of the iron found in the topsoil of the island was carried from Africa by huge dust clouds. • Which study would most likely be used to investigate this hypothesis? • Tracking dust clouds with satellite photos.

20. Objective 1 • A researcher determined the percentage of electrical energy transformed into different forms of energy by a toaster. The best way to communicate these results is to display data using a – • Histogram • Circle Graph • Line Graph • Box-whisker Graph

21. A researcher determined the percentage of electrical energy transformed into different forms of energy by a toaster. The best way to communicate these results is to display data using a – • Circle Graph

22. Objective 1 Water and 5% root hormone Control Water and 10% root hormone Water and 15% root hormone • A valid study would include a control group containing – • Bean seed, tomato seed, sunflower seed, and water. • Water and 2% root hormone. • Water only. • Bean seed, tomato seed, sunflower seed, water, and 1% root hormone.

23. Water and 5% root hormone Control Water and 10% root hormone Water and 15% root hormone • A valid study would include a control group containing – • Bean seed, tomato seed, sunflower seed, and water.

24. Objective 1 • When a 10% hydrochloric acid solution is heated in an open test tube, the test tube should always be pointed – • So bubbles are visible • At a 180° angle from the flame • Toward a ventilated area • Away from nearby people

25. When a 10% hydrochloric acid solution is heated in an open test tube, the test tube should always be pointed – • Away from nearby people

26. Black-and-White Negatives Before digital cameras were available, photographs could be made only with cameras that used photographic film. These cameras are still in use today. Photographic film contains a light-sensitive layer of chemicals. These chemicals are silver halide granules. As light rays travel through a camera lens, they bend and are focused onto the photographic film. When exposed to light, the silver halide granules are activated in different amounts depending on the intensity of the light that strikes them. This forms a photographic image on the film. After the pictures are taken, the exposed film is processed in a laboratory. The film is placed in a solution that reacts chemically with the silver halide granules, forming black metallic silver. The black silver is thickest in the areas of the film exposed to the most intense light and thinnest in the areas exposed to the least intense light. After a roll of film is processed, it is called a negative. This is because it contains negative images of the pictures that were taken. When light is projected through the negative onto photosensitive paper, the areas with the thickest silver become the lightest, and the areas with the thinnest silver become the darkest. The diagram shows both a negative image and a positive image of a tree. The negative image represents an image on the negative, and the positive image represents the same image on photo paper. Objective 1 Negative Image Positive Image

27. Objective 1 • Which of these tools is most useful in identifying the wavelengths of visible light? • Convex Lens • Spectroscope • Microscope • Concave Mirror

28. Which of these tools is most useful in identifying the wavelengths of visible light? • Spectroscope

29. Objective 1 • Which of the following would explain why this film works with a reduced amount of light? • The film reflects long wavelengths of light efficiently. • Fewer silver halide granules are present in the film. • The film retracts brighter light. • The photochemical reaction can occur in lower intensity light.

30. Which of the following would explain why this film works with a reduced amount of light? • The photochemical reaction can occur in lower intensity light.

31. Objective 1 A B C 60 60 60 Solubility (g/100 mL) Solubility (g/100 mL) Solubility (g/100 mL) 0 0 0 100 100 Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C) • Nine groups of students dissolved as much potassium chloride as possible in water. Each group used 100 mL of water heated to a different temperature. Which graph shows the relationship between solubility and temperature for potassium chloride? D 60 Solubility (g/100 mL) 0 100 100 Temperature (°C)

32. Nine groups of students dissolved as much potassium chloride as possible in water. Each group used 100 mL of water heated to a different temperature. Which graph shows the relationship between solubility and temperature for potassium chloride? D 60 Solubility (g/100 mL) 0 100 Temperature (°C)

33. Objective 1 • Which conclusion about AvexTec is supported by information in this advertisement? • AvexTec is available over the counter at local pharmacies and grocery stores • People who take AvexTec every day will seldom experience pain from migraines. • Research indicates that AvexTec prevents migraine headaches. • AvexTec can be prescribed to reduce pain from migraines.

34. AcexTec is a prescription medicine that only your doctor can decide is right for you. AvexTec is not designed to prevent the onset of migraine headaches. Rather, it can relieve migraines once they start. Those diagnosed with uncontrolled high blood pressure and certain types of heart disease should not take AvexTec. Some people without recognized heart disease may have serious heart-related complications. If you believe that you have risk factors for heart disease, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking or a family history of heart disease, or if you are pregnant, nursing or taking other medications, talk to your doctor. • Which conclusion about AvexTec is supported by information in this advertisement? • AvexTec is available over the counter at local pharmacies and grocery stores • People who take AvexTec every day will seldom experience pain from migraines. • Research indicates that AvexTec prevents migraine headaches. • AvexTec can be prescribed to reduce pain from migraines.

35. Which conclusion about AvexTec is supported by information in this advertisement? • AvexTec can be prescribed to reduce pain from migraines.

36. Objective 1 • Liquid 1 and Liquid 2 react to produce a solid and a gas. Which of the following expressions correct shows how to determine the mass of the gas? • (mass of Liquid 1 + mass of Liquid 2) – (mass of solid) • (mass of Liquid 1 + mass of Liquid 2) + (mass of solid) • (mass of Liquid 1 x mass of Liquid 2)  (mass of solid) • (mass of Liquid 1 – mass of Liquid 2)  (mass of solid)

37. Liquid 1 and Liquid 2 react to produce a solid and a gas. Which of the following expressions correct shows how to determine the mass of the gas? • (mass of Liquid 1 + mass of Liquid 2) – (mass of solid)

38. Objective 1 Bubbles Empty Glass Warm Water (45°C) Before After • A glass is held upside down so that its open end is closed by the water’s surface. Soon air bubbles begin to escape from the glass. The best explanation for this observation is that – • Water condenses on the glass and escapes as a gas. • Air in the glass increases the water temperature and causes bubbling. • Pressurized water vapor rises rapidly and evaporates. • Air trapped in the glass is warmed and expands in volume.

39. Objective 1 Bubbles Empty Glass Warm Water (45°C) Before After • A glass is held upside down so that its open end is closed by the water’s surface. Soon air bubbles begin to escape from the glass. The best explanation for this observation is that – • Air trapped in the glass is warmed and expands in volume.

40. Objective 1 • Cytochrome c is a protein found in all aerobic organisms. • The differences in the amino acid sequence of Cytochrome c are used to determined how closely species are related. • The table above shows percent differences in Cytochrome c in four different animals. According to the table, which two animals are most closely related to each other. • Horse and dog • Dog and kangaroo • Horse and penguin • Penguin and kangaroo

41. Objective 1 • Cytochrome c is a protein found in all aerobic organisms. • The differences in the amino acid sequence of Cytochrome c are used to determined how closely species are related. • The table above shows percent differences in Cytochrome c in four different animals. According to the table, which two animals are most closely related to each other. • Horse and dog

42. Objective 1 • Which of these is the most appropriate unit of measure for reporting the density of a solid? • g/cm3 • g/cm • g/L2 • g/mm2

43. Objective 1 • Which of these is the most appropriate unit of measure for reporting the density of a solid? • g/cm3

44. Objective 1 • The pictures show a 10-newton block of wood being used to demonstrate how this instrument measures pressure. According to these data, the pressure of the block is a measure of the block’s – • Weight distributed over an area. • Density along each face. • Mass per unit of volume • Change in inertia.

45. Objective 1 • The pictures show a 10-newton block of wood being used to demonstrate how this instrument measures pressure. According to these data, the pressure of the block is a measure of the block’s – • Weight distributed over an area.

46. Observe odor Determine temperature Observe color Determine boiling point Observe volume Determine mass Observe color Determine pH Observe odor Determine pH Determine density Determine boiling point Determine mass Observe volume Determine temperature Observe odor A C B D Objective 1 • A student is working with four beakers that each contain a clear liquid. Which set of procedures would be best to use to determine whether one of the beakers contains only distilled water?

47. Observe odor Determine pH Determine density Determine boiling point B Objective 1 • A student is working with four beakers that each contain a clear liquid. Which set of procedures would be best to use to determine whether one of the beakers contains only distilled water?

48. 45 Objective 1 Tile Wood Carpet Asphalt Concrete 40 35 30 Rebound Height (cm) 25 20 15 10 5 0 Material • In an activity, a ball is dropped from a height of 100 cm onto five different materials. The rebound height of each drop is shown in the graph. Which of the following describes the hypothesis most likely being tested. • The mass of the ball affects the rebound height. • The material the ball is made of affects the rebound height. • The height of the ball is dropped from affects rebound height. • The surface the ball is dropped onto affects the rebound height.

49. 45 Objective 1 Tile Wood Carpet Asphalt Concrete 40 35 30 Rebound Height (cm) 25 20 15 10 5 0 Material • In an activity, a ball is dropped from a height of 100 cm onto five different materials. The rebound height of each drop is shown in the graph. Which of the following describes the hypothesis most likely being tested. • The surface the ball is dropped onto affects the rebound height.

50. Objective 1 • The bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis produce protein crystals that are toxic to the digestive system of insects. How can these bacteria be used to control insects in crops? • Apply the bacteria to growing plants. • Expose the bacteria to low levels of light. • Remove plants from areas containing the bacteria. • Treat the bacteria with a solution of protein crystals.