Chapter 5 Greek Civilization. Section 1 The Culture of Ancient Greece. Greek Mythology (Pgs. 155 – 156). The Greeks believed that gods and goddesses controlled nature and shaped their lives. Myths are traditional stories about gods and heroes.
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The Culture of Ancient Greece
The Greeks believed that gods and goddesses controlled nature and shaped their lives.
Myths are traditional stories about gods and heroes.
Greek mythology expressed the Greek people’s religious beliefs.
* The 12 most important gods and goddesses lived on Mount Olympus, the highest mountain in Greece.
The Greeks believed each person had a fate or destiny and certain events were going to happen no matter what
They also believed in prophecy, or prediction about the future.
Many Greeks visited an oracle, sacred shrine where priests and priestesses spoke for the gods.
The most famous was the oracle at the Temple of Apollo at Delphi (DEHL*fy).
Greek poetry and fables taught Greek values and are the oldest stories in the Western world.
The earliest Greek stories were epics, long poems about heroic deeds.
The earliest Greek epics were
the Iliad and the Odyssey,
written by the poet Homer
during the 700s B.C.
He based them on stories of a
War Greece had with the city
of Troy (northwestern Turkey).
A prince of Troy kidnaps the wife of the king of Sparta and the Greeks attack Troy.
The battle for Troy drags on for 10 years.
To finally take the city, the Greeks come up
with a plan to build a huge, hollow wooden
horse. They pretend to retreat, but actually hide inside the belly of the horse.
Thinking it was a gift/trophy of victory, the Tojans roll the giant horse into the city.
The Greek warriors climb from the horse and capture Troy.
Tells the story of Greek hero Odysseus and his journey home after the Trojan War.
Odysseusfaces storms, witches, and giants before returning home to his wife.
Because it took Odysseus 10 years to get home, we use the word odyssey today to mean a long journey with many adventures.
A fable is a short tale that teaches a lesson
Aesop (EE*sahp)was a Greek slave made up many famous fables
In most of Aesop’s fables, animals talk and act like people, and the story ends with a message, or moral
One of Aesop’s best-known fables is “The Tortoise and the Hare”
Drama is a story told by actors who pretend to be characters in a story
The Greeks performed plays in outdoor theatres and developed two types of dramas: comedies and tragedies
In a tragedy, a person struggles to overcome difficulties, but fails, and has an unhappy ending.
In a comedy, the drama has
a happy ending
* The best known writer of Greek comedies was Aristophanes (ar*uh*STAH*fun*eez)
* Encouraged thinking, but also humorous because his plays often made fun of leading politicians and scholars
Greek art and architecture expressed Greek ideas of beauty, reason, moderation, balance, and harmony
Greeks painted murals and pottery and also sculpted
Architecture is the art of designing building structures
The most important architecture were temples dedicated to a god
or goddess: best-known is the Parthenon, dedicated to Athena
The Greeks used three different
styles of columns in their
buildings: Ionic, Doric,