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Blood Disorders By: Hana Chahid, Sarah Miller, & Justin Paskell
Background Information • Blood is living tissue made up of liquid and salts. • The liquid part is plasma, which is made up of waters, salts, and proteins. • Half of your blood is plasma • The solid part has red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. • Blood disorders affect one or more parts of the blood • Some acute and some chronic • Many are inherited • Some general causes of blood disorders: other diseases, medicines, or lack of nutrients in your diet.
Platelet Disorders • If you have too few, too many, or platelets don’t work • Too few: mild risk of blood clots & serious bleeding • Too many: high risk of blood clots • Treatment depends on cause
Excessive blood clotting • When you get hurt your body forms blood clots • Some people get too many blood clots or prevent clots from dissolving • Blood clots travel to blood vessels in the brain, heart, kidneys, lungs, and limbs. (SO THEY ARE IMPORTANT!!!) • If you have a blood clot in a deep vein that breaks off and prevents blood flow its called pulmonary embolism. • Risk factors: genetic disorders, atherosclerosis, diabetes, atrial fibrillation, obesity, medicines, and smoking. • Some complications: stroke, heart attack, and kidney problems • Treatment: blood thinners and medicines
Bleeding Disorders • Not enough platelets, or platelets don’t work the right way. • Can result in liver disease • Can be inherited. Ex: Hemophilia • Can be a side effect of medicines
Anemia • Blood doesn’t carry enough oxygen to the rest of the body and not enough red blood cells • Common cause: not enough iron • Body needs iron to make hemoglobin • Hemoglobin gives the red to blood • Three main causes: blood loss, lack of red cell production, high rates of red cell destruction • Conditions that might lead to anemia: heavy periods, pregnancy, ulcers, colon cancer, inherited disorders, diets w/ not enough iron, and blood disorders. • Anemia can make you tired, cold, dizzy, irritable, short of breath, and headaches • Doctor will diagnose with physical tests and blood tests.
Leukemia • Cancer of white blood cells • Bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells • Abnormal white blood cells crowd the healthy blood cells making it hard for the blood to do its job • Different types of Leukemia: acute and chronic lymphocytic leukemia, and acute and chronic myeloid leukemia. • Chronic= Slow Acute= Fast • Some you can cure, and some you can’t cure but control • Treatments: chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation, also might need therapy to prevent relapse
Myeloma • Cancer in plasma cells • Plasma cells help protect our body from germs • Most common in old people and African Americans • Can run in families • Common symptoms: bone pain, broken bones, fatigue, weight loss, repeated infections, frequent fevers, feeling very thirsty, and frequent urination • Diagnose by lab tests, imaging tests, bone marrow biopsy • No symptoms= no treatment right away • Symptoms= chemotherapy, stem cell transplantation, radiation, and targeted therapy (uses substances that attack cancer cells without harming normal cells)
Eosinophilic Disorders • Eosinophil's are types of white blood cells • They help fight off infections and play a role in the body’s immune system • Blood isn’t suppose to have a lot of eosinophils • Reasons why it would produce more: allergic disorders, skin conditions, fungus and parasite infections, some cancers, and bone marrow disorders • Sometimes can move outside bloodstream and build up in organs and tissues • Treatment depends on the cause
Works Cited MedlinePlus - Health Information from the National Library of Medicine. (n.d.). U.S National Library of Medicine. Retrieved May 10, 2014, from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ APA formatting by BibMe.org.