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LEADERSHIP: MANAGEMENT PROCESS PERSPECTIVE by Mario T. Tabucanon Asian Institute of Technology. LEADERSHIP IS NOT ONLY AN EXECUTIVE FUNCTION. It should also be seen as both a service and an obligation - an obligation to serve the organization for the common good.
LEADERSHIP: MANAGEMENT PROCESS PERSPECTIVEbyMario T. TabucanonAsian Institute of Technology
LEADERSHIP IS NOT ONLY AN EXECUTIVE FUNCTION • It should also be seen as both a service and an obligation - an obligation to serve the organization for the common good.
TO BE ABLE TO LEAD EFFECTIVELY • The leader must have sound understanding of the fundamentals, of the basic functions of the organization
Basic Function of Any Organization • The basic function of any organization (business, social, religious, or governmental, etc.) is to transform certain combination of available inputs (money, materials, manpower, energy, facilities, energy, information, etc.) into some form of desirable outputs (products and/or services) within a given environment (social, economic, political, legal, natural, etc.) through the utilization of existing technology (hard/soft) andleadership provides the internal dynamismfor achieving this transformation through a process of good management and rational decision making.
A LEADER MUST SEE THE BIG PICTURE • To see the big picture is to see the organization as a system
A SYSTEM’S VIEW • To see the organization and its processes in their broad perspective by considering both internal and external environmental factors; • To study and understand more comprehensively the nature, characteristics, and behavior of the interrelationships of the interacting subsystems in a given environment; • To be able to organize the system that is the whole, by analyzing the whole and its components, in relationship to external systems that constitute its environment.
A GOOD LEADER MUST BE EFFECTIVE AND EFFICIENT IN CARRYING OUT THE MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS • Planning • Organizing • Staffing • Directing • Controlling
PLANNING • The process through which an organization attempts to bridge the gap between where it is at present and where it wants to be at some point in the future. • At the top level, Strategic Plan is developed; while at the middle and lower levels, Tactical and Operational Plans, respectively, are developed. The so-called Business Plan is normally a combination of Strategic and Tactical Plans.
ORGANIZING • Determining what work should be done and who should do it. • Establishing a division of labor and chain of command.
STAFFING • Providing the organization with employees required to perform the work. • Matching employees with jobs.
DIRECTING • Getting people to carry out plans and to act within the limits defined by the organization • Integrating the efforts of members of the group so that, by accomplishing their assigned tasks, group members meet individual and group objectives. • Providing procedural information, giving orientations, issuing orders, and influencing group dynamics.
CONTROLLING • Ensuring that plans become reality. • Assuring that the results of operations conform as closely as possible to established goals. • Providing timely information that may prompt revision of goals and to achieve proper coordination among all the activities of the organization.
EXERCISING LEADERSHIP • WHAT? • Ability of leaders to inspire their subordinates to work hard to achieve the organization’s goals
EXERCISING LEADERSHIP • WHEN? • Exercise leadership constantly • A leader’s behavior and attitude represent a model for subordinates to follow
EXERCISING LEADERSHIP • TRAITS OF A GOOD LEADER: • A visionary and has the ability to anticipate future scenarios • The ability to analyze options and make rational decisions • The ability to understand and anticipate the subordinates’ point of view • The ability to see other’s reactions to the leader’s behavior
EXERCISING LEADERSHIP • TRAITS OF A GOOD LEADER (Continued): • The willingness to do whatever is required to get the job done even if it means extra work • The ability to generate enthusiasm among subordinates • The willingness to accept responsibility • The ability to communicate
DIFFERENT STYLES OF LEADERSHIP SUIT DIFFERENT SITUATIONS • A leader must not be rigid in style. • A leader must be able to apply the right style at the right time and at the right situation.
DIFFERENT STYLES OF LEADERSHIP • THE AUTOCRATIC LEADER • Leads others through their source of power • THE DIPLOMATIC LEADER • Leads others through personal persuasion • THE DEMOCRATIC LEADER • Leads by abiding by the group’s decision whether arrived at unanimously or by a majority decision • THE CONSULTATIVE LEADER • Leads much the same as the democratic leader but reserves the right to make the final decision