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NTBs Under NAMA Negotiations A South Asian Perspective. By CUTS-CITEE Research Team Pranav Kumar Simi T B Chandan Mukherjee. Presentation Coverage. Theory Definition, Classification & Measurement Problems NTBs in Multilateral Trade Negotiations Tokyo, Uruguay and Doha Round
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CUTS-CITEE Research Team
Simi T B
NTB are measures, other than tariffs, that are connected with state (administrative) activity and influence prices, quantity, structure and/or direction of international flows of goods and services as well as resources used to produce these goods and services.
"We recognise that NTBs are an integral and equally important part of these negotiations and instruct participants to intensify their work on NTBs. In particular, we encourage all participants to make notifications on NTBs by 31 October 2004 and to proceed with identification, examination, categorization and ultimately negotiations on NTBs. We take note that the modalities for addressing NTBs in these negotiations could include request/offer, horizontal, or vertical approaches; and should fully take into account the principle of special and differential treatment for developing and least-developed country participants."
India has submitted notifications on NTBs along with other countries to the NGMA. India in its submission has stated that restrictive standards, burdensome regulations and procedures in several countries have been acting as barriers that significantly affect exports as also the capacity to trade. Several issues are involved with the NTBs; some of the measures clubbed together affect individual consignments, while some like those involving costs put additional burden on exports.
Regarding the inventory of non-tariff barriers, the authorities of Bangladesh gathered information from Chambers, associations and individual exporters. The NTBs faced by exporters are of different nature, and are categorised in the following broad areas:
(a) NTBs similar to SPS measures; (b) NTBs related to TBT measures; (c) Quantitative restrictions including ban; (d) Labeling requirement; (e) Rules of Origin; (f) Visa requirement
Notifications put forward by Pakistan to the Negotiating group on market access for the NTBs faced by its exporters includes:
In its compilation of proposals submitted by Members on NTBs, the Secretariat identified four categories of NTBs –
Category 1: SPS, TBT, RoO, Import Licensing etc.
Category 2: Anti-dumping and Subsidies & Countervailing Measures (SCMs)
Category 3: Trade Facilitation measures
Category 4: Outside the existing WTO agreements and Doha Agenda
RMG (Woven and Knitware), Jute products, Frozen foods and Leather & leather products
textiles and RMG, gems and jewelry, engineering goods, transport equipments, machinery, chemical products, leather products, handicrafts etc.
RMG, Woollen carpets, Pashmina products, Handicrafts, Silver jewelleries
Textiles & garments, Leather & leather products, sports goods, Carpets, surgical instruments
Processed food, textiles & apparel, gems etc.