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Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana. Information and Issues. Alcohol: facts and fiction. Myth Alcohol destroys brain cells Fact The moderate consumption of alcohol does not destroy brain cells. In fact it is often associated with improved cognitive (mental) functioning. Myth

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alcohol tobacco and marijuana

Alcohol, Tobacco, and Marijuana

Information and Issues

alcohol facts and fiction
Alcohol: facts and fiction
  • Myth
    • Alcohol destroys brain cells
  • Fact
    • The moderate consumption of alcohol does not destroy brain cells. In fact it is often associated with improved cognitive (mental) functioning.
  • Myth
    • A "beer belly" is caused by drinking beer.
  • Fact
    • A "beer belly" is caused by eating too much food. No beer or other alcohol beverage is necessary.
alcohol facts and fiction3
Alcohol: facts and fiction
  • Myth
    • Drinking coffee will help a drunk person sober up.
  • Fact
    • Only time can sober up a person...not black coffee, cold showers, exercise, or any other common "cures." Alcohol leaves the body of virtually everyone at a constant rate of about .015 percent of blood alcohol content (BAC) per hour.
  • Myth
    • Alcohol stunts the growth of children and retards their development.
  • Fact
    • Scientific medical research does not support this old temperance scare tactic.
history of alcohol use
History of alcohol use
  • Historians have found evidence of alcohol use dating back as far as ________________
  • Evidence of alcohol use is noted in many different ancient cultures from around the globe.
    • Persian, Chinese, Indian, Egyptian, and others.
  • The use of alcohol has been a consistent fixture in human society for thousands of years…and remains in use in most cultures.
what is alcohol
What is alcohol?
  • Alcohol is the name to given a variety of related compounds; the drinkable form is ____________________. It is a powerful, addictive, central nervous system _____________ produced by the action of yeast cells on carbohydrates in fruits and grains.
forms of alcohol
Forms of alcohol
  • __________ is made from fermented grains and has an alcohol content of three to six percent.
forms of alcohol7
Forms of alcohol
  • Wine is made from fermented fruits and has an alcohol content of 11 to 14 percent. Some wine drinks, such as wine coolers, have fruit juice and sugar added, lowering alcohol content to between four and seven percent. Fortified wines, such as port, have alcohol added, bringing alcohol content to between 18 and 20 percent.
forms of alcohol8
Forms of alcohol
  • _________ is made by distilling a fermented product to yield a drink that usually contains 40 to 50 percent alcohol. The alcohol content in liquor is sometimes indicated by degrees of proof, which in the United States is a figure twice as high as the percentage. Thus, 80-proof liquor is 40 percent alcohol.
  • Alcoholism is a disabling addictive disorder. It is characterized by compulsive and uncontrolled consumption of alcohol despite its negative effects on the drinker's health, relationships, and social standing.
  • Like other drug addictions, alcoholism is medically defined as a treatable disease. The term alcoholism is widely used, and was first coined in 1849 by Magnus Huss, but in medicine the term was replaced by the concepts of "alcohol abuse" and "alcohol dependence" in the 1980s.
effects of alcohol
Effects of Alcohol
  • When a person consumes alcohol, the drug acts on nerve cells deep in the brain. Alcohol initially serves as a stimulant, then induces feelings of relaxation and reduced anxiety. Consumption of two or three drinks in an hour can impair judgment, lower inhibitions, and induce mild euphoria.
  • _______________
  • Lymbic System
  • Cerebellum
  • Hypothalamus and Pituitary
  • ________________
signs and symptoms of use
Signs and Symptoms of use
  • Smell of alcohol on breath
  • Irritability
  • Euphoria
  • Loss of physical coordination
  • Inappropriate or violent behavior
  • Loss of balance
  • Unsteady gait
  • Slurred and/or incoherent speech
  • __________________________
  • Slowed thinking
  • Depression
  • Impaired short-term memory
  • ____________________________
signs of developing problems
Signs of developing problems
  • Tremors
  • Agitation
  • Anxiety and panic attacks
  • Paranoia and delusions
  • Hallucinations (usually visual)
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Increased body temperature
  • Elevated blood pressure and heart rate
  • Convulsions
  • Seizures
other health risks
Other Health risks
  • Neurological dangers include impaired vision and impaired motor coordination, memory defects, hallucinations, blackouts, and seizures. Long-term consumption can result in permanent damage to the brain.
  • _________________problems include elevated blood pressure and heart rate, risk of stroke and heart failure.
  • Respiratory dangers include respiratory depression and failure, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and lung abscesses. Additionally, alcohol abuse increases the risk of mouth and throat cancer.
  • Liver disease caused by chronic alcohol abuse, including alcoholic fatty liver, hepatitis, and ______________, kills 25,000 Americans each year.
  • Other physiological dangers include damage to the gastrointestinal system (including duodenal ulcers, reflux, and diarrhea), the pancreas, and the kidneys. In addition, alcohol consumption may cause malnutrition, disrupt the absorption of nutrients in food, and suppress the immune system, thus increasing the potential for illness.
  • Psychological dangers include impaired judgment and verbal ability, apathy, introversion, antisocial behavior, inability to concentrate, and deterioration of relationships with family, friends, and co-workers.
tobacco facts and fiction
tobacco: facts and fiction
  • Myth
    • I am too old to quit
  • Fact
    • Older smokers are 50% more likely than any other age group to successfully quit smoking.
  • Myth
    • You can smoke your whole life and never have any side effects.
  • Fact
    • This is the exception and not the norm. Tobacco use accounts for 96 billion dollars in health care expenses nationally.
tobacco facts and fiction15
tobacco: facts and fiction
  • Myth
    • Chewing tobacco is safe compared to smoking tobacco.
  • Fact
    • Approximately 31,000 new cases of oral cancer will be diagnosed in the U.S.
  • Myth
    • Cigarettes have not been proven to cause cancer.
  • Fact
    • Nearly as common as lung cancer among smokers is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which entails the narrowing of airways in the lung, largely in the form of chronic bronchitis or emphysema.
history of tobacco use
History of tobacco use
  •  Members of all Native American tribes traditionally used tobacco dating back nearly 18,000 years. It was often consumed in religious practices; among some tribes, this was done only by experienced shamans or medicine men.
  • Following the arrival of the Europeans, tobacco became increasingly popular as a trade item. It was used recreationally.
  • The ill effects of tobacco and nicotine became evident in the ________________
what is tobacco
What is tobacco
  • Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the leaves of plants in the genus _____________
  • There are more than 70 species of tobacco in the plant genus ______________
forms of tobacco
Forms of tobacco
  • Smoking Tobacco
    • Cigarettes
    • Cigars
    • Pipe
    • Hookah
    • ____________
    • Kreteks
  • Smokeless Tobacco
    • Chewing tobacco
    • Snuff
tobacco addiction
Tobacco Addiction
  • Most smokers use tobacco regularly because they are addicted to nicotine. Addiction is characterized by compulsive drug seeking behavior, even in the face of negative health consequences.
  • It is well documented that most smokers identify tobacco use as harmful and express a desire to reduce or stop using it, and nearly 35 million of them want to quit each year.
  • Unfortunately, more than 85 percent of those who try to quit on their own relapse, most within a week.
effects of tobacco nicotine
Effects of Tobacco/ nicotine
  • The main affect is the carbon monoxide in cigarette smoke binds to the hemoglobin molecules in your red blood cells 40x stronger than oxygen.
  • So, in effect, when you smoke, it reduces the amount of oxygen available to the brain. This creates the euphoric 'high' that cigarette smokers experience.
  • Nicotine also activates areas of the brain that are involved in producing feelings of pleasure and reward. Recently, scientists discovered that nicotine raises the levels of a neurotransmitter called dopamine in the parts of the brain that produce feelings of pleasure and reward.
  • According to the American Heart Association, nicotine addiction has historically been one of the hardest addictions to break, while the pharmacological and behavioral characteristics that determine tobacco addiction are similar to those that determine addiction to drugs such as heroin and cocaine.
  • The adverse health effects from cigarette smoking account for an estimated 443,000 deaths, or nearly one of every five deaths, each year in the United States.
  • More deaths are caused each year by ____________use than by all deaths from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), illegal drug use, alcohol use, motor vehicle injuries, suicides, and murders combined.
  • An estimated 90% of all deaths from chronic obstructive lung disease are caused by smoking.
health risks
Health Risks
  • Coronary Heart Disease
  • Stroke
  • Cancer
    • Acute myeloid leukemia
    • Bladder cancer
    • ______________________________________
    • Cancer of the esophagus
    • Kidney cancer
    • Cancer of the larynx (voice box)
    • Lung cancer
    • ___________________________________
    • Cancer of the pharynx (throat)
    • Stomach cancer
    • Cancer of the uterus
health risks25
Health Risks
  • Lung Disease
    • Emphysema
    • Bronchitis
    • Chronic airway obstruction
  • Infertility
  • ______________________________
  • Stillbirth
  • Low birth weight
  • Sudden infant death syndrome
  • Bone density issues
marijuana facts and fiction
Marijuana: facts and fiction
  • Myth
    • Marijuana is not harmful.
  • Fact
    • Health effects include respiratory damage, mental health concerns, and cognitive functioning.
  • Myth
    • Marijuana is not addictive.
  • Fact
    • Evidence suggest that dependency issues can arise surrounding Marijuana use.
history of marijuana
History of marijuana
  • Cannabis is indigenous to Central and South Asia. Evidence of the inhalation of cannabis smoke can be found at least 3000 years ago.
  • Evidence suggest that religious, recreational and medicinal uses of cannabis existed in many cultures around the globe.
  • Cannabis was criminalized in various countries beginning in the early 20th century.
what is marijuana
What is marijuana
  • Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mixture of dried, shredded leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of the hemp plant. You may hear marijuana called by street names such as _______________________________. There are more than 200 slang terms for marijuana.
forms of marijuana
Forms of marijuana
  • Unprocessed
    • The terms cannabis or marijuana generally refer to the dried flowers and subtending leaves and stems of the female cannabis plant. This is the most widely consumed form, containing 3% to 22% THC. In contrast, cannabis strains used to produce industrial hemp contain less than 1% THC and are thus not valued for recreational use
  • Processed
    • Kief
      • Kiefis a powder, which can be sifted from the leaves and flowers of cannabis plants and either consumed in powder form or compressed to produce cakes of hashish.
    • ____________
      • ___________ is a concentrated resin produced from the flowers of the female cannabis plant. Hash can often be more potent than marijuana. It varies in color from black to golden brown depending upon purity.
    • Hash oil
      • Hash oil, is a mix of essential oils and resins extracted from mature cannabis foliage through the use of various solvents.It is also used in a variety of cannabis foods.
    • Residue (resin)
      • Because of THC's adhesive properties, a sticky residue, most commonly known as "resin", builds up inside utensils used to smoke cannabis.
delivery systems
Delivery systems
  • Joints
  • Blunts
  • Pipes
  • Bongs
  • ____________
  • Food products
marijuana dependence
Marijuana dependence
  • Long-term regular users of marijuana may become psychologically dependent. They may have a hard time limiting their use, they may need more of the drug to get the same effect, and they may develop problems with their jobs and personal relationships. The drug can become the most important aspect of their lives.
effects of marijuana
Effects of marijuana
  • Distorted perception (sights, sounds, time, touch)
  • Problems with memory and learning
  • Loss of coordination
  • Trouble with thinking and problem-solving
  • Increased heart rate
  • Mood Changes
    • Euphoria
    • Anxiety
  • Hallucinations
  • Delusions
effects of marijuana34
Effects of marijuana
  • The active ingredient in marijuana, delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol or _________, acts on cannabinoid receptors on nerve cells and influences the activity of those cells.
  • Some brain areas have many cannabinoid receptors, but other areas of the brain have few or none at all.
  • Many cannabinoid receptors are found in the parts of the brain that influence pleasure, memory, thought, concentration, sensory and time perception, and coordinated movement.
health risks36
Health risks
  • Reduced blood pressure
  • Similar respiratory concerns as in tobacco use
    • Lung Disease
      • ___________________
      • Bronchitis
      • Chronic airway obstruction
  • ______________________________________________________________________________
  • Reduced immune response
  • Some negative impact on unborn children