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What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?. Putting the pieces of the puzzle together Lee Casuscelli 2010. Positive Partnerships Website. www.autismtraining.com.au Teacher training component -Certificate – 4 days FTF. Parent/carer component – 2 days FTF

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what is autism spectrum disorder

What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?

Putting the pieces of the puzzle together

Lee Casuscelli 2010

positive partnerships website
Positive Partnerships Website
  • www.autismtraining.com.au
  • Teacher training component -Certificate – 4 days FTF.
  • Parent/carer component – 2 days FTF
  • Online training, resources, discussion board, fact sheets.
what do we already know
What do we already know?

What do you see in your student’s with an ASD?

slide4
A SpectrumAutism is a complex developmental disability characterised as a pervasive developmental disorder.

Pervasive Developmental Disorders

Autism Spectrum Disorders

Asperger Syndrome

PDD.NOS

Autistic Disorder

Rett Syndrome

Childhood Disintegrative Disorder

Autism affects a person’s ability to communicate, form relationships with others and

respond appropriately to the environment in varying degrees.

what is autism spectrum disorder1
What is Autism Spectrum Disorder?
  • Triad of Impairments:
  • Communication
  • Social
  • Repetitive / Restricted Behaviours
  • Diagnosis - DSM1V
  • Prevalence
  • Future
the diversity of autism
Repetitive behaviour

Restricted interest

The Diversity of Autism

Communication

verbal

non-verbal

COMMUNICATION

Social Interaction

SOCIAL

INTERACTION

aloof

passive

active/odd

SEVERE

mild

marked

Sensory

SENSORY

hyposensitive

hypersensitive

Learning Style

I.Q

strong visual spatial skills; visual learner; kinaesthetic; gestalt learner; poor executive functioning; detail-focused

Intellectual Ability

(IQ)

Learning styles

severe

moderate

mild

average

gifted

key characteristics
Key Characteristics
  • Communication
  • Social
  • Repetitive Behaviours and Restricted Interests
  • Sensory
  • Information Processing
communication
Communication
  • All types of interactions where a message is sent or received
  • Main hurdle is around the social purpose of language – pragmatics
  • Need an interpreter

Diagnostic Criteria:

  • Delayed speech development (autism and HFA, not Aspergers)
  • Impairment in expressive language
  • Impairment in receptive language or comprehension skills
  • Use of rote learnt phrases – echolalia
  • Unusual vocal quality
  • Difficulty initiating communicative interactions - conversations
  • Differences in eye gaze, body language and use of gesture
  • What do you see in your students?
social
Social
  • Core feature of ASD
  • Significantly impacts on friendships – fewer friends, prefer company of older or younger children
  • More vulnerable to bullying – 4 times more at risk than the non ASD population
  • Higher rates of depression and anxiety
  • Diagnostic Criteria:
  • Impairment in non verbal communication
  • Failure to develop peer relationships
  • Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment
  • What do you see in your students?
repetitive behaviours and restricted interests
Repetitive Behaviours and Restricted Interests
  • Difficulty coping with change and unfamiliar situations
  • Difficulty regulating obsessions and behaviour
  • Difficulty responding to traditional behaviour management
  • Need for sameness
  • Chunk Learning Style
  • Diagnostic Criteria:
  • Abnormally intense preoccupation with a pattern of interests
  • Stereotyped or repetitive motor mannerisms
  • Adherence to routines or rituals
  • What do you see in your students?
sensory
Sensory
  • Sensory processing is the ability to organise and interpret information receive by the 5 far senses and the 2 near senses
  • Two broad categories – over sensitive and under sensitive – hypo / hyper
  • Difficulty accurately recognising, integrating and processing sensory information
  • Auditory (fear of loud noises)
  • Visual (watching spinning objects)
  • Tactile (aversion to touch)
  • Gustatory (craving for strong tastes)
  • Olfactory (avoidance of smells)
  • Proprioception ( deep pressure – massage)
  • Vestibular (love of jumping or spinning)
  • Diagnostic Criteria:
  • Not currently part of the diagnostic criteria
  • Regularly reported as an area of need
  • What do you see in your students?
information processing
Information Processing
  • Weak Central Coherence – focusing on small details rather than the big picture
  • Executive Functioning – problem solving
  • Difficulties with:
  • Planning and organising
  • Concrete and literal thinking
  • Attention – maintaining, shifting and switching
  • Thinking of different options
  • Generalising
  • Understanding social situations
  • What do you see in your students?
and now
And now?
  • Refer to the list created at the start of this session.
  • Would you change anything?
  • Would you add anything?
  • Would you remove anything?
  • Would you re word anything?
what works
What works?

Teach communication skills in natural settings

Allow time for communication

Provide alternative means of communication- signing, picture exchange

Use visual communication – teach use and introduce systematically

Use short sentences

Speak calmly and allow extra time for processing

PBS – manage the antecedents, make environmental changes, teach replacement behaviours. Positive.

Sensory profiling

Adapt the environment

Use social scripts, comic strip conversations, power cards

Buddy for support

Utilise strengths and interests

Modify / adjust or adapt curriculum

WORK together = collaboration = community of practice